The Story of Your Two Brains

Did you know that many diseases could be traced to a breakdown in the gastrointestinal tract?

Do an internet search for neurotransmitters and the common result will be: “Neurotransmitters are biochemicals produced in the brain that affects us mentally, emotionally and physically.”  Despite the fact that Ninety nine (99%) percent of the neurotransmitters in your body are actually created in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract or your Second Brain), and every brain chemical known as a neurotransmitter is found there.  Doing some quick math, this means that the majority are focusing on the the 1% formed in the brain and ignoring the 99% made in the gut.

For proper thyroid function, 20% of the thyroid hormone in your body must be converted into its active form, which is done in the GI tract. The secretion of TSH is inhibited by elevated levels of dopamine, and stimulated by elevated norepinephrine. Conversely, a study published in 1987 in the “European Journal of Endocrinology” found that low levels of dopamine were associated with elevated thyroid hormone levels in patients with Graves’ Disease. The effect of Serotonin pathways remained an open question. This means the GI tract, or gut, plays a very important role in achieving optimal thyroid health.

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Neurotransmitters & Thyroid Interactions

Serotonin & Thyroid Interactions

  • Thyroid hormone levels are directly related to platelet serotonin levels.
  • Low thyroid hormone levels (especially T3) dampens cerebral bioenergetic metabolism which has been directly correlated to Major Depressive Disorder (MDD).
  • Thyroid hormones activate 5-TH2A serotonin receptors
  • Serotonin is used as a messenger to relaese TSH from the pituitary
  • Serotonin is involved with modualting intracellular T3 prodction via type II 5’deiodinase

Dopamine & Thyroid Interaction

  • Dopamine levels in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) stimulate the paraventricular nucleus
  • The paraventricular nucleus stimulates the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis
  • The HPT Axis modualtes TSH and T3 prodcution

Acetylcholine & Thyroid Interaction

  • Thyroid hormone levels affect the activities of AChE in the
    • frontal cortex
    • hipocampus
    • cerebellum
  • Hypothyroidism leads to a global loss of cholinergic activity, but with the greatest potential to develop cerebellum degeneration.

GABA & Thyroid Hormone Interactions

  • Thyroid hormones
    • modulate GABA Release
    • Activate the conversion of glutamate to GABA
    • Enhances GABA receptor sensitivity
  • GABA Issues
    • Low levels and/or low receptor sensitivity leads to anxiety

Melatonin & Thyroid Hormone Interaction Read More

  • Normal melatonin stimulates TSH production in pituitary
  • Short day and long nights increase melatonin production
  • Melatonin is immune stimulating in Autoimmunity
  • Increased melatonin levels suppress TSH production through:
    • Short days and longer nights
    • Melatonin supplementation
    • Free T3, T4 and TSH levels are lower with melatonin supplementation
53 year old woman with undiagnosed Hashimoto's. Changing thyroid medication made no difference in TSH. In the past two months has been having increasing numbers of cytokine storms (hot flashes, unable to sleep, severe fatigue, swelling, joint pain, reacts to all foods)
53 year old woman with undiagnosed Hashimoto’s. Changing thyroid medication made no difference in TSH. In the past two months has been having increasing numbers of cytokine storms (hot flashes, unable to sleep, severe fatigue, swelling, joint pain, reacts to all foods)

Seventy (70%) percent of your immune system resides in this area – your gut, and the GI tract has many important functions for your health including digestion, nutrient absorption, elimination, detoxification, hormone metabolism and energy production.

What Are Neurotransmitters and How They Affect Your Life?

Just like hormones govern many chemical functions in the body, the nervous, endocrine and immune system (NEI Supersystem) chemical functions are governed by messengers called neurotransmitters. Read More …

Nearly every chemical that controls the brain is also located in the gastrointestinal region, including hormones and neurotransmitters such as Serotonin, Dopamine, Glutamate, GABA and Norepinephrine. The gut contains 100 million neurons – more than the spinal cord. But there are also two-dozen small brain proteins; major cells of the immune system; one class of the body’s natural opiates; and native benzodiazepines.

A neurotransmitter is a chemical messenger used by neurons (nerve cells) to communicate in one direction with other neurons or receptors in the NEI Supersystem. These neurotransmitters are either excitatory or inhibitory. Think of them as text messages or emails between the nervous, endocrine (hormone) and immune system.

Inhibitory neurotransmitters are the system’s “off switches”, decreasing the likelihood that an excitatory signal is sent. Inhibitory transmitters regulate the activity of the excitatory neurotransmitters, much like the brakes on a car. Physiologically, the inhibitory transmitters act as the body’s natural tranquilizers, generally serving to induce sleep, promote calmness, and decrease aggression.

55 year old woman with H. pylori, dental infection and pinworms, Hashimoto's suffering uncontrolled cytokine storms.
55 year old woman suffering for several years. Lab testing showed she currently has H. pylori, dental infection and pinworms, and Autoimmune Hashimoto’s suffering uncontrolled cytokine storms. Eating healthy “High Lectin” diet provoking TH17 immune responses.

Excitatory neurotransmitters are the system’s “on switches”, increasing the likelihood that an excitatory signal is sent. Excitatory transmitters can be likened to the accelerator of a car, regulating many of the body’s most basic functions, including thought processes, higher thinking, and sympathetic activity, i.e. stimulates heartbeat, raises blood pressure, dilates the pupils, dilates the trachea and bronchi, stimulates the conversion of liver glycogen into glucose, shunts blood away from the skin and viscera to the skeletal muscles, brain, and heart, inhibits peristalsis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and inhibits contraction of the bladder and rectum. Physiologically, the excitatory transmitters act as the body’s natural stimulants, generally serving to promote wakefulness, energy, and activity.

Microbe hackersSpecial molecules in the nerves and on the lining of the gastrointestinal tract and hormone producing glands are called receptors. They are shaped to receive only one type of neurotransmitter, which fits it like a key in a lock. The result is that if an excitatory neurotransmitter reaches the specific receptor, the cell tends to stimulate a response. If an inhibitory neurotransmitter reaches the receptor, the cell shuts down or does not respond.

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Neurotransmitters in Short Supply

If neurotransmitters of either type are in short supply, or if they are blocked from reaching their proper receptors, (as a result of either genetics and/or chemical use) cell function tends to be abnormal. The lack of neurotransmitter function then results in unsuitable or counterproductive performance. Microbes are not the dumb little paramecium we studied in junior high biology. We now know microbes have evolved strategies to survive in our bodies and evade detection or avoid provoking an immune response. Microbes can hack into the NEI Supersystem disrupting neurotransmitter communication and at the same time over producing gasotransmitters. This cause certain neurotransmitters to be either under or over produce as the body tries to re-establish control of the the NEI Supersystem. Read More …

Read More: Gasotransmitters

Imagine trying to communicate with a family member by text messages while hackers are in your computer. You are trying to tell them to turn off the oven. Your family member will have trouble receiving your message because the system is being overwhelmed with spam. You have a limited number of texts before the bill gets really expensive. Or you send the message and it is blocked by the spam filter. Any number of scenarios can occur simultaneously throughout this very complex system.

Actually, 95% of all serotonin in the body is in the gut, where it triggers digestion. Nerve cells in the gut also use serotonin to signal back to the brain. This information can train us not to eat certain foods by communicating pain, gas and other terrible feelings.

Two brains are better than one.

Two brains are better than one. At least that is the rationale for the close – sometimes too close – relationship between the human body’s two brains, the one at the top of the spinal cord and the hidden but powerful brain in the gut known as the enteric nervous system.

Just as the cranial brain can upset the gut, the gut can also upset the brain.

The cranial brain is protected by the blood-brain barrier.

The abdominal brain is protected only by the intestinal lining. When threatened will begin directing the immune cells to defend itself.

The gut has no such protection.

In fact, anyone who has ever felt butterflies in the stomach before giving a speech, a gut feeling that flies in the face of fact or a bout of intestinal urgency the night before an examination has experienced the actions of the dual nervous systems.

The Second Brain in the gut, known as the enteric nervous system, is located in sheaths of tissue lining the esophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon, and plays a key role in human emotions. But few know the enteric nervous system exists, and therefore gut health is often overlooked. Symptoms from the two brains can get confused, and just as the brain can upset the gut, the gut can also upset the brain.

Read More: The Enteric Nervous System: The Brain in the Gut

Brain-based neurologist will correctly say neurotransmitters cannot be lab tested. This is due to the blood-brain-barrier that protects the brain. Very little can cross that membrane and if it is you are likely heading for the hospital. However, gut-based splanchnologist (those who study the viscera AKA: organs) know you can use neurotransmitter testing for the Second Brain. There are two types of testing that can be done effectively. One type of test measures the neurotransmitter levels. The other measures the pre-cursor components to determine which neurotransmitters are or are not being made. For more information on neurotransmitter testing call 530-615-4083 or email

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The human brain is very capable of automatically manufacturing the quantity of chemicals it needs if it is given the raw materials (nutrients from foods) to do so. However, while the normal diet supplies enough of the raw materials the brain needs to manufacture the needed level of neurotransmitters with a healthy, normally functioning gastrointestinal tract. Microbes make significant contribution not only to imbalanced neurotransmitters but also to the creation of a Ghetto Gut. Those with a Ghetto Gut are not capable of providing nourishment for the body or the production of neurotransmitters. Additionally, stress, worry, chemical use, poor nutrition, pollution and other factors of modern life are known to deplete neurotransmitter levels.

The role of the enteric nervous system is to manage every aspect of digestion, from the esophagus to the stomach, small intestine and colon. The Second Brain, or gut brain, accomplishes all that with the same tools as the big brain, a sophisticated nearly self-contained network of neural circuitry, neurotransmitters and proteins. The independence is a function of the enteric nervous system’s complexity.

Have you ever wondered how a quadriplegic can digest food when the rest of the body is unable to communicate with the brain? Answer: The Second Brain

When someone skips lunch, the gut is more or less silent. Eat a pastrami sandwich, and contractions all along the small intestines mix the food with enzymes and move it toward the lining for absorption to begin. If the pastrami is rotten, reverse contractions will force it – and everything else in the gut – into the stomach and back out through the esophagus at high speed.

In each situation, the gut must assess conditions, decide on a course of action and initiate a reflex. The gut monitors pressure. It monitors the progress of digestion. It detects nutrients, and it measures acid and salts. It’s a little chemical lab. The enteric system does all this on its own, with little help from the central nervous system.

But 95 percent of the body’s serotonin is housed in the gut, where it acts as a neurotransmitter and a signaling mechanism. The digestive process begins when a specialized cell, an enterochromaffin, squirts serotonin into the wall of the gut, which has at least seven types of serotonin receptors. The receptors, in turn, communicate with nerve cells to start digestive enzymes flowing or to start things moving through the intestines.

Serotonin also acts as a go-between, keeping the brain in the skull up to date with what is happening in the brain below. Such communication is mostly one way, with 90 percent traveling from the gut to the head.

The enteric and central nervous systems use the same hardware, as it were, to run two very different programs. Serotonin, for instance, is crucial to feelings of well-being. Hence the success of the antidepressants known, as S.S.R.I.’s that raise the level of serotonin available to the brain by blocking serotonin receptors in the gut.

Many of those messages are unpleasant, and serotonin is involved in sending them. Food sensitivities cause serotonin to be released in the gut, leading to pain, gas and other terrible feelings. The gut is not an organ from which you wish to receive frequent progress reports. These constant updates deplete the serotonin levels leading to symptoms of:

  • Low mood
  • Sleep difficulties
  • Weight difficulties
  • Cravings/poor impulse control
  • Headaches
  • Hot flashes
  • Intestinal complaints
  • Low libido

Serotonin is also implicated in one of the most debilitating gut disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, or I.B.S., which causes abdominal pain and cramping, bloating and, in some patients, alternating diarrhea and constipation. Therefore, a healthy stomach is essential to keep the precise balance of chemicals for optimal mental and physical health.

For more information on neurotransmitter testing call 530-615-4083 or email

What is the Neuro-Endo-Immune Supersystem?

The Neuro-Endo-Immune Supersystem communicates with the body via shared messenger molecules called neurotransmitters, cytokines or hormones. To help you understand the Neuro-Endo-Immune (NEI) Supersystem, allow me to use an analogy. The body is the computer hardware. Just as Microsoft Windows is the operating system for computers, the NEI Supersystem is the body’s operating system. I’ll use Windows rather than Mac because Windows and the NEI Supersystem are more susceptible to hackers (bacteria, parasites) and viruses.

Every computer must have an operating system to run other programs. Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the screen, keeping track of files and directories on the hard drive, and controlling peripheral devices such as Bluetooth devices, printers, arms and legs. The operating system is the most important program that runs on a computer and in your body.

In your body, metabolic processes, digestion, reproduction and physical activity are examples of the programs. For large systems such as the human body, the operating system has even greater responsibilities and powers. It is like a traffic cop – it makes sure those different programs and users (organs) stay coordinated while at the same time do not interfere with each other.

Finding and fixing errors is an important job for the operating system. Repair programs rely on a simple and clean interface that doesn’t involve too much user interaction. In fact, the only thing you have to do is to allow the immune system to scan the hardware (body). The operating system is also responsible for security, ensuring that unauthorized users do not access the system.

Glitches and Hackers

Glitches are short-lived faults in a system. It frequently refers to an error which is not detected (no symptoms) at the time it occurs but shows up later as symptoms or disease conditions. Especially when the peripheral devices do not work as they were designed to.

The NEI Supersystem usually corrects occasional occurrences of these irritating disturbances. However, if these glitches occur frequently, the system fails to stay in sync and complete normal functions or to perform them properly. These glitches become a slippery slope as an effort is made to suppress the symptoms rather than identify the cause in the NEI Supersystem. A bug or hacker getting access into the operating system can also cause a glitch in the NEI Supersystem.

Computer hackers out for their own selfish interest break into the operating system, damaging the operating system. NEI Supersystem hackers (bacteria, yeast/mold and parasites) alter the NEI responses for their own selfish survival mechanisms.  Their preferred glitches are to create a favorable environment and make themselves invisible to the immune system for their survival.

After hackers break into your computer, the alterations to the operating system remain even though the hackers are long gone. It takes time for the security system to identify them after which it remembers their identity. Just as Windows sends out security updates, every time the immune cells are replaced they receive an updated list in the form of antibodies. Trying to eliminate the hackers after they are gone is futile. Stimulating the immune system in the absence of hackers only promotes the onset of autoimmunity.

Immature or out-of-season, the seed, grain, vegetable or fruit are protected by chemical deterrents known as Lectinsto keep themselves from being eaten to extinction. Lectins are most concentrated in the flesh of the fruit surrounding seeds. Due to the fact that seeds are the “babies” of the plants, necessary for the continuance of their species, protecting them is a priority.

Lectins bind to, interact and disrupt the basic components of NEI Supersystem causing glitches in the system. The flesh of immature or out-of-season fruit is toxic and yet considered a food. There are two principle means to increase the number of glitches in the NEI Supersystem by consuming: (1) Soft Lectins – an ordinarily non-toxic food which has become toxic through genetic modification and/or over-consumption of an ordinarily low-level toxicity food (2) Hard Lectins – Legumes, beans, lentils. Read More …

The Second Brain

The Second Brain or the “enteric nervous system” is located in the sheaths of tissue lining the esophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon. Considered a single entity, it is a network of neurons, neurotransmitters and proteins that zap messages between neurons, support cells like those found in the brain proper and a complex circuitry that enables it to act independently, learn, remember and, as the saying goes, produce gut feelings.

When nerves to the limbs are cut or damaged loosing communication with the brain and central nervous system, muscles are deprived of their direction and control becoming paralyzed. When the organs are deprived of communication with the brain and central nervous system, as in the case of paraplegics, quadriplegics or traumatic brain injury, they continue to function. In fact, the only function lost is the ability to decide when to #1 Pee and #2 Poo, which iscontrolled by the brain and central nervous system. In other words, if outside nerves are not required, then inside nerves must be the ones that do the job.

Components of the NEI Supersystem

Although the Neuro-Endo-Immune Supersystem has immune modulating capability, the relationships between the NEI components have, until recently, largely been separated into individual unrelated systems and the focus has been on low-hanging fruit, e.g. HPA axis.

Details of how the enteric nervous system mirrors the central nervous system have been emerging in recent years, according to Dr. Michael Gershon, professor of anatomy and cell biology at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in New York. He is one of the founders of a new field of medicine called “neurogastroenterology.”

The gut contains 100 million neurons – more than the spinal cord. Major neurotransmitters like serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, norephinephrineand Gasotransmitterslike nitric oxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphideare in the gut.

The nervous, endocrine and immune systems communicate bidirectionally via shared messenger molecules variously called neurotransmitters, cytokines or hormones. Their classification as neurotransmitters, cytokines or hormones is more serendipity than a true reflection of their sphere of influence. Rather than these systems being discrete entities they constitute, in reality, a single higher-order entity as the Neuro-Endo-Immune Supersystem.

The cranial brain controls the muscular compartment of the body through the nervous system. Chewing stimulates the production of digestive chemistry prior to the arrival of food through the vagus nerve. Similar to switching the system on. Read More … From there, the abdominal organs are controlled primarily through hormones and neurotransmitters of the Abdominal brain. These are transported through the abdominal blood supply to support and control automatic processes in the body.

Neurotransmitters (Neuro)

Like Instant messaging (IM chat) used for text-based communication between two or more participants over the Internet or other types of networks within the body. IM–chat and nerves transmission happens in real-time.

Neurotransmitters are not unique to the brain and, in fact, act throughout the body and brain in varying capacities and concentrations. Many people aren’t aware, for instance that 95% of all serotonin production in the body occurs not in the brain, but in the gut! Within these very separate respective systems, the actions of neurotransmitters can vary hugely. Neurotransmitters stimulate opposite effects in the muscular and abdominal compartment. Those which stimulate and causes dilation of the blood vessels in one compartment – inhibits and constricts the blood vessels in the other. This is the basis of “Don’t go swimming after you have eaten.” For example, Serotonin enhances blood flow to the organs while Dopamine diminishes blood supply to the abdominal organs.

  • Paracrine neurotransmitters pass short distances to be used by local target tissue.
  • Autocrine neurotransmitters are produced and used in the same cell.
  • Certain bacteria have the capability to produce neurotransmitters. Usually as part of their survival strategy.

Brain/CNS Neurotransmitters

Movement of chemicals accomplishes communication of information between nerves across a small gap between nerve endings. These chemicals are called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters then cross the gap where they may be accepted by the next nerve at a specialized site called a receptor. Used primarily for control of the muscular areas of the body.

Brain/Central Nervous System Neurotransmitter Lab Testing Facts
  • Urinary neurotransmitter levels are NOTindicative of neurotransmitter levels in the central nervous system.
  • Urinary neurotransmitter testing can NOTbe used to test the levels of neurotransmitters present in the brain.
  • Urinary neurotransmitter testing can NOTbe used to determine neurotransmitter imbalances in the brain.
  • Urinary neurotransmitter test results can NOTbe explained in terms of brain and CNS function.
  • Brain-based neurologists do NOTrecognize the abdominal brain.
Abdominal/Enteric Neurotransmitter Lab Testing Facts
  • Splanchnologistsrecognize the abdominal and cranial brain. Unfortunately, splanchnologists are far and few between.
  • Urinary neurotransmitter CAN measure levels of neurotransmitters in the abdominal brain
  • Urinary neurotransmitter CAN provide information on organ function and dysfunction.
  • Urinary neurotransmitter CAN provide information on where the blood supply is being directed in the body.

Vasomotor control through Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters are used as IM chat communication by the abdominal nervous system. Neurotransmitters are primarily focused on controlling the blood supply in the body. Dr. DeJarnette, first published this information in 1931 ‘Vasomotor Control’. Unfortunately, the technology and scientific literature needed to validate it has only been available in the past ten years.

Vasomotor Nerves control the flow of blood throughout the body through neurotransmitters. Dr. DeJarnette wrote extensively on this in the 1930’s, twenty years before the discovery of serotonin (sero – blood; ton – tone; in – pertaining to). Did you think it was only involved in depression?

Immune control through Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters can stir up remarkably different opposing effects depending on concentration (presence of Vasomotor nerve fibers and extent of neurotransmitter release), receptor affinity, availability of neurotransmitters, and timing of autonomic activity in relation to the inflammatory responses.

Neurotransmitters are key players in the mystery-shrouded defense mechanism: how the abdominal nervous system body puts the brakes on an overenthusiastic inflammatory response. Inhibitory neurotransmitters may function as a paracrine or autocrine factors, exerting local control over the immune system.

Endocrine (Endo)

Endocrine glands are ductless. The endocrine system is a collection of glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood stream to be carried to a target organ or tissue. Hormone distribution in the body is subject to the control of the Vasomotor neurotransmitters. The hormones are delivered to the nearest capillaries, and spread throughout the body. The responses are delayed because hormones must first travel through the blood to reach the target organs.  The duration is longer because the kidneys filter the blood. Vasomotor control of the blood vessels can support or delay the delivery of hormones. The functions of the endocrine hormones are interrelated. Many of the hormones generated serve to alter the work of other endocrine hormones.

  • Hormones traveling long distance are endocrine.
    • Endocrine response is slower because hormones travel through the blood.
    • The duration in endocrine transmission is prolonged because kidneys have to filter the blood.
  • Paracrine hormones pass short distances to be used by local target tissue.
  • Autocrine hormones are produced and used in the same cell.

Here are a few of the areas governed by the endocrine system:

  • Reproduction
  • Responses to stress and injury
  • Growth and sexual development
  • Body energy levels
  • Internal balance of body systems
  • Bone and muscle strength
  • Immune stimulation and/or suppression

Endocrine hormonescan either stimulate or suppress the immune response. The effect of endocrine hormones on the immune system is the most over-looked aspect.


Exocrine glands differ from endocrine glands, because they have ducts that deliver the products in the superficial part of the body, such as the skin, or in the inner part where they are necessary, such as the pancreatic juice that is carried into the intestine to aid digestion. The glands that are found in the body are mostly exocrine glands.

  • Exocrine glands have ducts to carry hormones.
  • Exocrine hormones are released into the external environment, or outside of the body.
  • Endocrine hormones are released into the internal environment, or inside of the body.
  • Exocrine glands have sub-classifications.


Cytokinesare a class of proteins secreted in the immune system, used as messenger molecules to control the duration and strength of the immune response to foreign microorganisms. Many cytokines produced by T cells direct the immune response of various white blood cells (leukocytes) to a foreign microorganism in the body.

Chemokinesare cytokines that induce chemotaxis, which is the movement of a cell or group of cells that follow a chemical messenger to a new location. Unlike cytokines, chemokines have just one major role: to direct the chemotaxis of leukocytes toward foreign, potentially disease-causing microorganims so that these cells are labeled and destroyed by the immune response.

Chemokine and Cytokine Signaling

The first signal “When do I respond.”

Consists of the interaction of the immune cells and determines the specificity of the response.

The second signal “Will I respond?”

Provides the information that T cells need in order to respond to antigen. This signaling can be either positive (stimulation) or negative (inhibition). Hackers (bacteria, parasites and mold) survive by changing the signal or breaking the antibody.

The third signal:“How will I respond?”

Is delivered by the cytokines, chemokines or dendritic cells stimulating T cells to develop into TH1, TH2, TH17 or Treg T cells.

This fourth signal “What location do I respond to?”

Determines the Th1, Th2, Th17, Th2, Th23 response. Chemokines produce homing beacons that will direct them to migrate through tissues.

The fifth signal: “When do I stop responding?”

T cells (Tregs) were originally identified as having immunosuppressive functions through anti-inflammatory cytokines. This is not the only control over the immune response.

The sixth signal: “Did you say attack?”

Glitches (Lectins) and Hackers (bacteria, parasites and mold) disrupt and confuse multiple signals. This disruption can cause immune suppression to Hackers, while immune stimulation occurs to Glitches in the same TH-immune system (TH1, TH2, TH17 or Treg T). Read More…

Immunosuppression might not be the only function of T reg cells. They may convert into proinflammatory cells to promote immune responses.When the controls on the immune system have lost their ability to communicate, autoimmune disease is the consequence. The only tools the Medical community has is to induce immune suppression. In other words an ‘Iatrogenic Acquired Immune Deficiency.’ Read More …

On the other hand, the Alternative and Functional Medicine community focus on stimulating the immune system. They rely on the old adage, “Don’t worry, your body will know what to do.” The immune system does only what the signals tell it to do following the old adage as directed. Hackers disrupt the signals for their own survival. Think about the possibilities of stimulating the immune response with altered signals directing the response. To determine TH1 or TH2 dominance, a challenge is done. However the rules above still apply. There is no mention of TH17, which is the major system involved in autoimmunity. Read More …

For more information on the NEI Supersystem and which lab testing may best suited for your specific case. Contact Wellness Alternatives 530-615-4083

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