Melatonin Induces Circadian Phase Shift

The rise and fall of Melatonin induces Circadian Phase Shifts. Lower lengths of sunlight produces higher levels of melatonin.

Melatonin is primarily thought to be found only in the pineal gland. Melatonin is mainly produced in the pineal gland during the dark phase (night). Its secretion from the pineal gland has been classically associated with circadian and circanual rhythm regulation. However, melatonin production is not confined exclusively to the pineal gland, but other tissues including retina, Harderian glands, gut (400x more that pineal gland), ovary (200X more than gut), testes, bone marrow, thymus and bone marrow of humans and lens also produce it.

Most studies continue to erroneously view Melatonin as the “Sleep Hormone”. There is a dose–response relationship between light intensity or irradiance and melatonin production. A person’s prior light history has an impact on melatonin suppression or production.  Those suffering from autoimmune disease are more likely to seclude themselves in dark rooms. Unknowingly, increasing their melatonin production and increasing their immune system hyper-reactivity.

The sun rises later in the fall and winter and nightfall arrives much easier and this disrupts the timing of melatonin release some patients with autoimmune inflammation, Metabolic syndrome,,  Seasonal Affective Disorder, or producing disruptions to reproductive health and fertility. The seasonal fluctuations of melatonin coincides with the activity of the immune system, possibly allowing the body to anticipate and handle microbial threats more efficiently.

A circadian phase shift occurs when one or more daily circadian rhythms are disrupted in the fall and winter months as the days grow shorter and the nights are longer. Another phase shift occurs during the spring and summer as the opposite occurs. In these situations, one rhythm, e.g. enhance immune response, lags behind or pushes ahead of another rhythm, e.g. decreased Vitamin D production, results in increased inflammation.

After the Summer Solstice – More Melatonin is Produced

After the June Solstice (Northern Hemisphere) or the December Solstice (Southern Hemisphere), patients call because they are having more flairs or cytokine storms. They ask why they were feeling good and happy with their progress; and three to four weeks after the Solstice, they are regressing back to their original condition. It is due to the increased production of melatonin as the days get shorter. Yes, that little bit of increased production of melatonin causes that big of a change in their body.

WARNING: If the Summer solstice is rapidly approaching. Many people will start start having some flair ups. It amazes me how the melatonin produced by an additional six minutes of darkness after the Summer Solstice can provoke cytokine storms. The four supplements mentioned above will help dampen this affect.

What is the Neuro-Endo-Immune Supersystem?

The Neuro-Endo-Immune Supersystem (NEI Ss) communicates with the body via shared messenger molecules called neurotransmitters, cytokines or hormones traveling through the blood, controlled by the Abdominal Brain.

This Supersytem continues to work even when a person is in a coma, brain dead, paraplegic or a quadriplegic. All of the functions under the control of the Abdominal Brain and the NEI Supersystem continue to work, maintaining the body’s core functions.

To help you understand the Neuro-Endo-Immune (NEI Ss) Supersystem, allow me to use an analogy. The body is the computer hardware. Just as Microsoft Windows is the operating system for computers, the NEI Supersystem is the body’s operating system. I’ll use Windows rather than Mac because Windows and the NEI Supersystem are more susceptible to hackers (bacteria, parasites) and viruses.

Every computer must have an operating system to run other programs. Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the screen, keeping track of files and directories on the hard drive, and controlling peripheral devices such as Bluetooth devices, printers, arms and legs. The operating system is the most important program that runs on a computer and in your body.

In your body, metabolic processes, digestion, reproduction and physical activity are examples of the programs. For large systems such as the human body, the operating system has even greater responsibilities and powers. It is like a traffic cop – it makes sure those different programs and users (organs) stay coordinated while at the same time do not interfere with each other.

Finding and fixing errors is an important job for the operating system. Repair programs rely on a simple and clean interface that doesn’t involve too much user interaction. In fact, the only thing you have to do is to allow the immune system to scan the hardware (body). The operating system is also responsible for security, ensuring that unauthorized users do not access the system.

Glitches and Hackers

Glitches are short-lived faults in a system. It frequently refers to an error which is not detected (no symptoms) at the time it occurs but shows up later as symptoms or disease conditions. Especially when the peripheral devices do not work as they were designed to.

The NEI Supersystem usually corrects occasional occurrences of these irritating disturbances. However, if these glitches occur frequently, the system fails to stay in sync and complete normal functions or to perform them properly. These glitches become a slippery slope as an effort is made to suppress the symptoms rather than identify the cause in the NEI Supersystem. A bug or hacker getting access into the operating system can also cause a glitch in the NEI Supersystem.

Computer hackers out for their own selfish interest break into the operating system, damaging the operating system. NEI Supersystem hackers (bacteria, yeast/mold and parasites) alter the NEI responses for their own selfish survival mechanisms.  Their preferred glitches are to create a favorable environment and make themselves invisible to the immune system for their survival.

After hackers break into your computer, the alterations to the operating system remain even though the hackers are long gone. It takes time for the security system to identify them after which it remembers their identity. Just as Windows sends out security updates, every time the immune cells are replaced they receive an updated list in the form of antibodies. Trying to eliminate the hackers after they are gone is futile. Stimulating the immune system in the absence of hackers only promotes the onset of autoimmunity.

Immature or out-of-season, the seed, grain, vegetable or fruit are protected by chemical deterrents known as Lectins to keep themselves from being eaten to extinction. Lectins are most concentrated in the flesh of the fruit surrounding seeds. Due to the fact that seeds are the “babies” of the plants, necessary for the continuance of their species, protecting them is a priority.

Lectins bind to, interact and disrupt the basic components of NEI Supersystem causing glitches in the system. The flesh of immature or out-of-season fruit is toxic and yet considered a food. There are two principle means to increase the number of glitches in the NEI Supersystem by consuming: (1) Soft Lectins – an ordinarily non-toxic food which has become toxic through genetic modification and/or over-consumption of an ordinarily low-level toxicity food (2) Hard Lectins – Legumes, beans, lentils. Read More …

The Second Brain

The Second Brain or the “enteric nervous system” is located in the sheaths of tissue lining the esophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon. Considered a single entity, it is a network of neurons, neurotransmitters and proteins that zap messages between neurons, support cells like those found in the brain proper and a complex circuitry that enables it to act independently, learn, remember and, as the saying goes, produce gut feelings.

When nerves to the limbs are cut or damaged loosing communication with the brain and central nervous system, muscles are deprived of their direction and control becoming paralyzed. When the organs are deprived of communication with the brain and central nervous system, as in the case of paraplegics, quadriplegics or traumatic brain injury, they continue to function. In fact, the only function lost is the ability to decide when to #1 Pee and #2 Poo, which is controlled by the brain and central nervous system. In other words, if outside nerves are not required, then inside nerves must be the ones that do the job.

Components of the NEI Supersystem

Although the Neuro-Endo-Immune Supersystem has immune modulating capability, the relationships between the NEI components have, until recently, largely been separated into individual unrelated systems and the focus has been on low-hanging fruit, e.g. HPA axis.

Details of how the enteric nervous system mirrors the central nervous system have been emerging in recent years, according to Dr. Michael Gershon, professor of anatomy and cell biology at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in New York. He is one of the founders of a new field of medicine called “neurogastroenterology.”

The gut contains 100 million neurons – more than the spinal cord. Major neurotransmitters like serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, norephinephrineand Gasotransmitterslike nitric oxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphideare in the gut.

The nervous, endocrine and immune systems communicate bidirectionally via shared messenger molecules variously called neurotransmitters, cytokines or hormones. Their classification as neurotransmitters, cytokines or hormones is more serendipity than a true reflection of their sphere of influence. Rather than these systems being discrete entities they constitute, in reality, a single higher-order entity as the Neuro-Endo-Immune Supersystem.

The cranial brain controls the muscular compartment of the body through the nervous system. Chewing stimulates the production of digestive chemistry prior to the arrival of food through the vagus nerve. Similar to switching the system on. Read More … From there, the abdominal organs are controlled primarily through hormones and neurotransmitters of the Abdominal brain. These are transported through the abdominal blood supply to support and control automatic processes in the body.

Neurotransmitters (Neuro)

Like Instant messaging (IM chat) used for text-based communication between two or more participants over the Internet or other types of networks within the body. IM–chat and nerves transmission happens in real-time.

Neurotransmitters are not unique to the brain and, in fact, act throughout the body and brain in varying capacities and concentrations. Many people aren’t aware, for instance that 95% of all serotonin production in the body occurs not in the brain, but in the gut! Within these very separate respective systems, the actions of neurotransmitters can vary hugely. Neurotransmitters stimulate opposite effects in the muscular and abdominal compartment. Those which stimulate and causes dilation of the blood vessels in one compartment – inhibits and constricts the blood vessels in the other. This is the basis of “Don’t go swimming after you have eaten.” For example, Serotonin enhances blood flow to the organs while Dopamine diminishes blood supply to the abdominal organs.

  • Paracrine neurotransmitters pass short distances to be used by local target tissue.
  • Autocrine neurotransmitters are produced and used in the same cell.
  • Certain bacteria have the capability to produce neurotransmitters. Usually as part of their survival strategy.

Brain/CNS Neurotransmitters

Movement of chemicals accomplishes communication of information between nerves across a small gap between nerve endings. These chemicals are called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters then cross the gap where they may be accepted by the next nerve at a specialized site called a receptor. Used primarily for control of the muscular areas of the body.

Brain/Central Nervous System Neurotransmitter Lab Testing Facts
  • Urinary neurotransmitter levels are NOT indicative of neurotransmitter levels in the central nervous system.
  • Urinary neurotransmitter testing can NOT be used to test the levels of neurotransmitters present in the brain.
  • Urinary neurotransmitter testing can NOT be used to determine neurotransmitter imbalances in the brain.
  • Urinary neurotransmitter test results can NOT be explained in terms of brain and CNS function.
  • Brain-based neurologists do NOT recognize the abdominal brain.
Abdominal/Enteric Neurotransmitter Lab Testing Facts
  • Splanchnologistsrecognize the abdominal and cranial brain. Unfortunately, splanchnologists are far and few between.
  • Urinary neurotransmitter CAN measure levels of neurotransmitters in the abdominal brain
  • Urinary neurotransmitter CAN provide information on organ function and dysfunction.
  • Urinary neurotransmitter CAN provide information on where the blood supply is being directed in the body.

Vasomotor control through Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters are used as IM chat communication by the abdominal nervous system. Neurotransmitters are primarily focused on controlling the blood supply in the body. Dr. DeJarnette, first published this information in 1931 ‘Vasomotor Control’. Unfortunately, the technology and scientific literature needed to validate it has only been available in the past ten years.

Vasomotor Nerves control the flow of blood throughout the body through neurotransmitters. Dr. DeJarnette wrote extensively on this in the 1930’s, twenty years before the discovery of serotonin (sero – blood; ton – tone; in – pertaining to). Did you think it was only involved in depression?

Prior to the 1950s, Serotonin was considered a vasomotor control neuroendocrine transmitter. After LSD was discovered, serotonin became associated with mood and depression. They knew Serotonin was produced in the blood/serum (“ser”), and constricted or increased tone (“tonin”) in blood vessels. Thus, the name.

Immune control through Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters can stir up remarkably different opposing effects depending on concentration (presence of Vasomotor nerve fibers and extent of neurotransmitter release), receptor affinity, availability of neurotransmitters, and timing of autonomic activity in relation to the inflammatory responses.

Neurotransmitters are key players in the mystery-shrouded defense mechanism: how the abdominal nervous system body puts the brakes on an overenthusiastic inflammatory response. Inhibitory neurotransmitters may function as a paracrine or autocrine factors, exerting local control over the immune system.

Endocrine (Endo)

Endocrine glands are ductless. The endocrine system is a collection of glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood stream to be carried to a target organ or tissue. Hormone distribution in the body is subject to the control of the Vasomotor neurotransmitters. The hormones are delivered to the nearest capillaries, and spread throughout the body. The responses are delayed because hormones must first travel through the blood to reach the target organs.  The duration is longer because the kidneys filter the blood. Vasomotor control of the blood vessels can support or delay the delivery of hormones. The functions of the endocrine hormones are interrelated. Many of the hormones generated serve to alter the work of other endocrine hormones.

  • Hormones traveling long distance are endocrine.
    • Endocrine response is slower because hormones travel through the blood.
    • The duration in endocrine transmission is prolonged because kidneys have to filter the blood.
  • Paracrine hormones pass short distances to be used by local target tissue.
  • Autocrine hormones are produced and used in the same cell.

Here are a few of the areas governed by the endocrine system:

  • Reproduction
  • Responses to stress and injury
  • Growth and sexual development
  • Body energy levels
  • Internal balance of body systems
  • Bone and muscle strength
  • Immune stimulation and/or suppression

Endocrine hormonescan either stimulate or suppress the immune response. The effect of endocrine hormones on the immune system is the most over-looked aspect.


Exocrine glands differ from endocrine glands, because they have ducts that deliver the products in the superficial part of the body, such as the skin, or in the inner part where they are necessary, such as the pancreatic juice that is carried into the intestine to aid digestion. The glands that are found in the body are mostly exocrine glands.

  • Exocrine glands have ducts to carry hormones.
  • Exocrine hormones are released into the external environment, or outside of the body.
  • Endocrine hormones are released into the internal environment, or inside of the body.
  • Exocrine glands have sub-classifications.


Cytokinesare a class of proteins secreted in the immune system, used as messenger molecules to control the duration and strength of the immune response to foreign microorganisms. Many cytokines produced by T cells direct the immune response of various white blood cells (leukocytes) to a foreign microorganism in the body.

Chemokinesare cytokines that induce chemotaxis, which is the movement of a cell or group of cells that follow a chemical messenger to a new location. Unlike cytokines, chemokines have just one major role: to direct the chemotaxis of leukocytes toward foreign, potentially disease-causing microorganims so that these cells are labeled and destroyed by the immune response.

Chemokine and Cytokine Signaling

The first signal “When do I respond.”

Consists of the interaction of the immune cells and determines the specificity of the response.

The second signal “Will I respond?”

Provides the information that T cells need in order to respond to antigen. This signaling can be either positive (stimulation) or negative (inhibition). Hackers (bacteria, parasites and mold) survive by changing the signal or breaking the antibody.

The third signal:“How will I respond?”

Is delivered by the cytokines, chemokines or dendritic cells stimulating T cells to develop into TH1, TH2, TH17 or Treg T cells.

This fourth signal “What location do I respond to?”

Determines the Th1, Th2, Th17, Th2, Th23 response. Chemokines produce homing beacons that will direct them to migrate through tissues.

The fifth signal: “When do I stop responding?”

T cells (Tregs) were originally identified as having immunosuppressive functions through anti-inflammatory cytokines. This is not the only control over the immune response.

The sixth signal: “Did you say attack?”

Glitches (Lectins) and Hackers (bacteria, parasites and mold) disrupt and confuse multiple signals. This disruption can cause immune suppression to Hackers, while immune stimulation occurs to Glitches in the same TH-immune system (TH1, TH2, TH17 or Treg T). Read More…

Immunosuppression might not be the only function of T reg cells. They may convert into proinflammatory cells to promote immune responses.When the controls on the immune system have lost their ability to communicate, autoimmune disease is the consequence. The only tools the Medical community has is to induce immune suppression. In other words an ‘Iatrogenic Acquired Immune Deficiency.’ Read More …

On the other hand, the Alternative and Functional Medicine community focus on stimulating the immune system. They rely on the old adage, “Don’t worry, your body will know what to do.” The immune system does only what the signals tell it to do following the old adage as directed. Hackers disrupt the signals for their own survival. Think about the possibilities of stimulating the immune response with altered signals directing the response. To determine TH1 or TH2 dominance, a challenge is done. However the rules above still apply. There is no mention of TH17, which is the major system involved in autoimmunity. Read More …

For more information on the NEI Supersystem and which lab testing may best suited for your specific case. Contact Wellness Alternatives 530-615-4083

Are Edible Enemies contributing to poor health and inflammation? Lectins cause a plethora of damage to the body, promoting chronic inflammation and sensitivity. Take the Edible Enemy Quiz to test your knowledge on lectins.

Use the Lectin Control Formula to reduce the inflammatory response that occurs due to lectin consumption. Take two capsules with each meal.

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