ReThink Candida

From the time you collected the culture Stool sample at your home. Candida Continues to grow without any competition because 95% of the original microbes in the stool sample have died or become dormant while being transported to the laboratory. Lacking any competition for food, Candida continues to proliferate during the incubation at the Laboratory. This overgrowth during transportation and preparation fuels the common belief of many Doctors and People alike of the deleterious health effects of Candida overgrowth in the body. This belief has resulted in the inappropriate use of Candida drugs, supplements and diets. Stool Culture laboratory results are likely erroneous and can lead to inappropriate patient treatment for Candida, Yeast and Mold.

Candida lacking any competition out competes 95% of the original dead or dormant microbes in the stool sample.

Documented Limitation of Culture Stool Assessment


In the last decade, DNA sequencing has played a pivotal role in our knowledge on microbial diversity providing an outstanding tool for the detection, identification, and characterization of microorganisms.(1,2) DNA assessment has greater efficiency, reliability, and reproducibility, as well as providing both qualitative and quantitative data. DNA analysis is the new gold standard for identification of bacteria in clinical microbiology and has greatly facilitated the identification and classification of intestinal microbiota composition.(3-7) Much of this has been done with techniques based on 16S rDNA gene, which include fluorescent in situ hybridization, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis.(4,8-10) 

DNA analysis is the new gold standard for identification of bacteria in clinical microbiology and has greatly facilitated the identification and classification of intestinal microbiota composition.3-7

Richard Lord

So why does anyone use the culture method? Conventional bacteriological methods, such as microscopy and culture, have been used for analysis and/or quantification of the intestinal microbiota for decades.(8-10) Barriers, such as investment in new equipment and staff, as well as commitments to on-going analysis and research collaborations, interfere with what many laboratories are able to offer. Translating science to accepted standard clinical protocol takes time.(11) Culture is still readily available and reasonably accurate, so clinicians continue to use it even though there are known significant limitations which include: transport issues, indeterminate and presumptive quantification and identification, as well as subjectively demanding techniques., In this review, we discuss six major pitfalls of conventional stool assessment. 

1. Transport Issues

The primary issue with culture analysis is that of transport. Since analysis is culture dependent, sample collection must be done using nutrient broth containers to keep as many bacteria alive as possible in transport. This broth allows continued growth of those species most satisfied with the broth medium during transport, until the sample is finally plated for culture. This growth results in a significant change in the balance of microbes present since some species will more actively grow at the expense of others. DNA analysis eliminates this problem by placing the specimen in Formalin vials for transport. Formalin immediately kills all organisms, freezing the exact balance present at the time of collection. Since DNA identification is only looking for the genes of the microbiota, living specimens are not necessary. This technique allows the clinician to develop the most appropriate therapy based on the patient’s true gut microbiota, resulting in better clinical results.

Recent studies in our laboratory illustrate this situation. One specimen was placed in two vials: one vial containing formalin and another a nutrient broth commonly used for transport. Both vials were incubated for three days at room temperature, then DNA was extracted. The extract was incubated with three different restriction enzymes which cleave the DNA at specific base pair sequences (Figure 1).

The digestate was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then placed on an agarose gel plate and the DNA fragments were electrophoretically separated. Since restriction enzymes cleave the DNA only at specific base pair sequences, broths with identical populations of microbes would produce the same patterns of banding in the electrophoretic runs. If, however, there were different amounts and types of microbiota in the two tubes, then differences would appear in the banding patterns. This was clearly demonstrated in the experiment (Figure 2 ).

Figure 2. Three restriction enzymes HAEIII, Mbol, and Sau3A digest the same two samples. One sample comes from culture and sensitivity (CS) vial containing a nutrient broth. The other sample vial contains formalin (F). Both vials have incubated for three days. The banding patterns are significantly different for the two vials indicating the populations of microbiota present are significantly different. In addition, note the CS vials have much fewer and heavier bands indicating that the microbial populations have reduced diversity due to the anaerobic die off and those viable ones have overgrown. Some bands present in the F vials are not detected in the CS vials where whole groups have died off. L is a calibration of known DNA sizes.

Another observation from the data is the loss of banding in the nutrient broth vial over time, indicating overgrowth of aerobes at the expense of the anaerobic populations and consequent loss of diversity. Opportunistic, potentially pathogenic organisms can also overgrow under these conditions. This overgrowth has been seen in our laboratory. For these reasons, nutrient broth transport vials cannot provide the specimen integrity required for accurate measurement of gut microbes.

Figures 3 through 5 illustrate the growth response of Bifidobacteria, Candida species and Staphylococcus aureus in one subject over three days. This data indicates that clinical laboratory data relying on transport of the specimen to the laboratory for culture are likely erroneous and can lead to inappropriate patient treatment. Candida species overgrowth is particularly notable (Figure 5). As these data indicate, Candida proliferates in nutrient broth transport media. This overgrowth in transport has likely fueled the common belief of many practitioners of the deleterious health effects of Candida albicans overgrowth in the gut. This belief may have resulted in inappropriate prescription of anti-fungal agents.

Transport Effects on Bifidobacteria Concentrations
Transport Effects on Staphylococcus aureus.
Transport Effects on Candida Species

This data indicates that clinical laboratory data relying on transport of the specimen to the laboratory for culture are likely erroneous and can lead to inappropriate patient treatment.

Richard Lord

2. Quantitative Assessment

In the Metametrix DNA assessment, quantification of predominate, opportunistic, and pathogenic bacteria are given as exact amounts. Yeast/fungal values are given as a plus 1, 2, 3, or 4 and represent a specific value range. For example, a +1 is specifically quantified to mean 100 – 999 pica grams of DNA per gram with asystematic reproducible result. Similarly, bacterial assessments are quantitatively reported as Colony Forming Units per gram sample.

Stool Culture Assessment is a “Best Guess”, subject to “Human Error”.

In laboratories that utilize culture assessments, values of quantity are significantly less specific or reproducible. For example, when samples come into the laboratory, they are plated onto a dish with selective or differential media. The technician dips a tool, generally a cotton tipped applicator, into the sample and puts it on a plate that is divided into four quadrants. The technician starts streaking in quadrant 1, then drags the tool to quadrant 2, 3, then 4 in sequence. The dishes are incubated overnight at which time they are assessed. If the bacteria grew in the first quadrant only, it is called a +1. The assumption is that there was only enough of the bacteria in the sample, due to low concentrations, to grow only in the first quadrant. The first quadrant is expected to have the greatest numbers of bacteria since that is where the streaking starts. If colonies appear in all four quadrants, it is called a +4. The fourth quadrant would be expected to have the least amount of original bacteria present since it is the last streaked. Thus, if something grew in the fourth quadrant, it is assumed that it grew there because bacteria were present in high concentrations in the sample. No procedure or assessment is done to confirm this assumption. No standardization for original amount of sample on the tool exists. A +4 theoretically means that there was enough of the bacteria on the sample that it stayed on the tool while it was dragged from the first to the fourth quadrant. However, with no standardization, these steps are at best a subjective judgment by the technician.

Additionally, if growth is found in the first and fourth quadrant, but not in the second and third, some technicians may call this a +4, while another may call it a +2. These results are technician based, and allow for human error, such as the technician turning the tool differently in the last quadrant. Consequently, a +1, +2, +3, or +4 from culture is an unverified guess based on where the microbe grew in the culture dish. This is at best a qualitative assessment of bacterial presence in the sample. These discrepancies are some of the reasons hospital-based laboratories give results as positive or negative and do not attempt to quantify when using culture techniques.

3. Presumptive Diagnosis/Identification

To identify individual microbes growing on the initial plates, individual colonies are selected and grown out again. Using a process of elimination composed of several if-then steps, a series of tests are done which yield a diagnosis of the most likely organism present. Typical characteristics such as colony morphology, key biochemical reactions, and drug susceptibility patterns assist in establishing the suppositious identification of the microorganism. However, most labs imply that this diagnostic identification of the microbe is definitive. It is not definitive, but at best gives a percentage ‘best estimate’  of the likelihood of identification accuracy.

It is widely accepted that plate culturing techniques reveal only a small portion of the true microbial population, primarily due to an inability of detecting organisms that might not be cultivable with known existing media, temperature specifics, phases of metabolic activity, and the inability of recovering known microorganisms which are viable but enter a non-cultivable state.(13-15) DNA analysis became the standard of research more than a decade ago, partially due to the subjective nature of culture ID systems. The sensitivity of conventional culture method was compared to DNA analysis for identifying Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) in known cases of dysentery. DNA had an identification accuracy rate of 96%, compared to culture’s identification rate of 54%.(12) 

However, most labs imply that this diagnostic identification of the microbe is definitive. It is not definitive, but at best gives a percentage ‘best estimate’ of the likelihood of identification accuracy. 

Richard Lord

4. Identification of Predominate Bacteria

Bifidobacteria are among the first to establish themselves in the infant’s intestinal tract, and in the healthy infant, they predominate. While it would be impossible under normal life circumstances to have 0+ as a level of Bifidobacteria, that level is often reported in laboratories utilizing culture techniques. In these laboratories, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria, both facultative anaerobes, are identified primarily based on selective growth media. Though further enzyme tests such as coagulase or catalase may be done to hone the identification of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria identification is done solely on this single growth. Quantification is also made from the growth on these plates, as described above. These phenotypic methods suffer from a lack of reproducibility generated by conditions of culture used in different laboratories and to the diversity of strains that comprise the recognized species. DNA identification and quantification of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria is exact.

Doctor recommended the Best Probiotic “Ever”. Why did the PCR test show little colonization of Bifidobacter?
LooK at the six month cost of the “Best Probiotic Ever” with nothing to show for it.

5. Parasitology

Parasitology is yet another field of microbiology to be greatly improved by molecular technologies. Classically, parasites have been identified by microscopy and enzyme immunoassays.(17) In recent studies, DNA techniques have proven to be more sensitive and specific than classic laboratory methods.(4,17,18) One example is Giardia. Since Giardia cysts are shed sporadically and the number may vary from day to day, laboratories have adopted multiple stool collections to help increase identification rates for all parasite examinations.(4) Even with the advent of antigen detection systems, there has long been uncertainty in diagnosis when no ova or parasites are found. With PCR technology, only one fecal sample is needed for 100% sensitivity and specificity in parasitology examinations. The clinician needs to be aware that assessment of parasites, while good by microscopy, is much more accurate with DNA based technologies.

Tape Worm put into sample container. “Optimized Parasite Recovery” by lab found no parasites.

6. Automated Identification Systems

There are three main automated systems in use for microbial identification: the MicroScan, VITEK 2, and Crystal GP. All use the if-then sequences discussed earlier to identify characteristics of microbiota and produce proposed bacterial identification with a given accuracy expressed as a percentage.

Vitek, Vitek 2, Maldi-TOF and Crystal GP all require “CULTURABLE” microbes for identification.

The accuracy of these systems was evaluated by identifying coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). Verification was done with DNA by 16S rRNA sequencing. The MicroScan, VITEK 2, and Crystal GP systems correctly identified 82.5%, 87.5%, and 67.5% of the isolates, respectively. Misidentification was the main problem in MicroScan and Crystal GP systems, whereas the main problem of VITEK 2 was low-level discrimination. None of the three phenotypic systems tested could accurately and reliably identify CNS at the species level as well as the 16S rRNA technique.19 There are two types of the VITEK systems, the VITEK 2 fluorescent card and the VITEK 2 colorimetric card assay. In another study, the accuracy of identification at the species level for the VITEK 2 fluorescent card, the VITEK 2 colorimetric card assays, and the API 20 NE (another identification system), were 48%, 59%, and 46%, respectively. In comparing 16S rRNA gene sequencing to the VITEK 2 fluorescent card, the VITEK 2 only identified 43% of the isolates correctly at the species level, a low rate., Due to this low rate of identification, the authors proposed an algorithm for proper identification of non-fermenting gram-negative rods. In the algorithm, isolates with only good or acceptable identification to species level should be subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing when accurate species assignment is sought.  


DNA assessment is specific and accurate in the identification and quantification of fecal microbiota. As discussed above, culture methods are relatively inefficient, time consuming, and labor intensive, often leaving diagnosis obscure. DNA is highly sensitive and specific. Beginning with the sample collection, DNA assessment is superior because it avoids the pitfalls of transport that culture methods suffer from and allows the identification of true gut microbiota, as well as the anaerobic population comprising 95% of gut microbiota. The results are the actual types and amounts at the time of collection, not what survived in a growth medium. DNA further reports the microbiota as true numbers, values that were specifically quantified, not an assumption. The ability of DNA to accurately identify microbiota has been one of the primary reasons why it has been so embraced by the research community for the last decade. Research on Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus has significantly expanded since the introduction of DNA analysis. DNA techniques are known to be more sensitive and specific than classic laboratory methods.,, Verification of the accuracy of culture assessment tools and equipment is done by comparing their results to the “actual” value, which is determined by DNA assessments.

Though culture has been correlated to clinical features in older research studies, we now know much of the data was incorrect.

Richard Lord

Sellers of conventional stool tests argue that DNA assessment does not have the years of clinical background that culture has. This point of course is misleading. Though culture has been correlated to clinical features in older research studies, we now know much of the data was incorrect, due to the significant limitations of culture and the indeterminate results it produces. Researchers have been actively reevaluating past research for this reason. Specific values of gut bacteria have been identified for normal healthy populations using DNA assessments, as well as for populations of selected groups and specific disease conditions., 

A notable example many clinicians are now aware of is the research of Dr. Gordon and Dr. Ley who discovered that obese volunteers had greater amounts of Firmicutes and significantly less Bacteroidetes than the lean participants., In their research on fat bugs, they performed a comparative 16S-rRNA-gene sequence-based survey (DNA analysis) of the distal gut microbiota – NOT CULTURE. Gordon’s team could not and would not have done this research with culture, because it cannot produce this information. DNA analysis is the most thorough and reliable assessment of the gut microbiota. It eliminates the major limitations of conventional stool testing using culture methods and offers advanced knowledge for more effective patient treatment.


  1. Woo PC, Lau SK, Teng JL, Tse H, Yuen KY. Then and now: use of 16S rDNA gene sequencing for bacterial identification and discovery of novel bacteria in clinical microbiology laboratories. Clin Microbiol Infect. Oct 2008;14(10):908-934. 
  2. Woese CR. Bacterial evolution. Microbiol Rev. Jun 1987;51(2):221-271.
  3. Clarridge JE, 3rd. Impact of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for identification of bacteria on clinical microbiology and infectious diseases. Clin Microbiol Rev. Oct 2004;17(4):840-862, table of contents.
  4. Ghosh S, Debnath A, Sil A, De S, Chattopadhyay DJ, Das P. PCR detection of Giardia lamblia in stool: targeting intergenic spacer region of multicopy rRNA gene. Mol Cell Probes. Jun 2000;14(3):181-189.
  5. Langendijk PS, Schut F, Jansen GJ, et al. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization of Bifidobacterium spp. with genus-specific 16S rRNA-targeted probes and its application in fecal samples. Apple Environ Microbiol. Aug 1995;61(8):3069-3075.
  6. Welling GW, Elfferich P, Raangs GC, Wildeboer-Veloo AC, Jansen GJ, Degener JE. 16S ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for monitoring of intestinal tract bacteria. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1997;222:17-19. 
  7. Delgado S, Suarez A, Mayo B. Identification of dominant bacteria in feces and colonic mucosa from healthy Spanish adults by culturing and by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Dig Dis Sci. Apr 2006;51(4):744-751. 
  8. Finegold S, Sutter V, Mathisen G. Normal indigenous intestinal flora. New York: Academic Press; 1983. 
  9. O’Sullivan DJ. Methods of analysis of the intestinal microflora. In: Tannock GW, ed. Probiotics: a critical review. Wymondham: Horizon Scientific Press; 1999:23-44. 
  10. Tannock GW. Analysis of the intestinal microflora: a renaissance. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. Jul-Nov 1999;76(1-4):265-278.
  11. NIH. Translational Research – NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. March 19, 2008. 
  12. Dutta S, Chatterjee A, Dutta P, et al. Sensitivity and performance characteristics of a direct PCR with stool samples in comparison to conventional techniques for diagnosis of Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli infection in children with acute diarrhoea in Calcutta, India. J Med Microbiol. Aug 2001;50(8):667- 674. 
  13. Lleo MM, Bonato B, Tafi MC, Signoretto C, Pruzzo C, Canepari P. Molecular vs culture methods for the detection of bacterial faecal indicators in groundwater for human use. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2005;40(4):289-294.
  14. del Mar Lleo M, Tafi MC, Signoretto C, Dal Cero C, Canepari P. Competitive polymerase chain reaction for quantification of nonculturable Enterococcus faecalis cells in lake water. FEMS Microbiol Ecol Dec 1 1999;30(4):345-353.
  15. Lleo MM, Tafi MC, Canepari P. Nonculturable Enterococcus faecalis cells are metabolically active and capable of resuming active growth. Syst Appl Microbiol. Aug 1998;21(3):333-339. 
  16. Ballongue J. Bifidobacteria and probiotic action. Vol pages 357-428. NewYork: Marcel Dekker Inc.; 1993.
  17. Verweij JJ, Blange RA, Templeton K, et al. Simultaneous detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in fecal samples by using multiplex real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol. Mar 2004;42(3):1220-1223.
  18. Morgan UM, Pallant L, Dwyer BW, Forbes DA, Rich G, Thompson RC. Comparison of PCR and microscopy for detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in human fecal specimens: clinical trial. J Clin Microbiol. Apr 1998;36(4):995-998.
  19. Kim M, Heo SR, Choi SH, et al. Comparison of the MicroScan, VITEK 2, and Crystal GP with 16S rRNA sequencing and MicroSeq 500 v2.0 analysis for coagulase-negative Staphylococci. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:233.
  20. Ling TK, Liu ZK, Cheng AF. Evaluation of the VITEK 2 system for rapid direct identification and susceptibility testing of gram negative bacilli from positive blood cultures. J Clin Microbiol. Oct 2003;41(10):4705-4707.
  21. Zbinden A, Bottger EC, Bosshard PP, Zbinden R. Evaluation of the colorimetric VITEK 2 card for identification of gram-negative nonfermentative rods: comparison to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. J Clin Microbiol. Jul 2007;45(7):2270-2273.
  22. Bosshard PP, Zbinden R, Abels S, Boddinghaus B, Altwegg M, Bottger EC. 16S rRNA gene sequencing versus the API 20 NE system and the VITEK 2 ID-GNB card for identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacteria in the clinical laboratory. J Clin Microbiol. Apr 2006;44(4):1359-1366.
  23. Hayashi H, Sakamoto M, Kitahara M, Benno Y. Molecular analysis of fecal microbiota in elderly individuals using 16S rDNA library and T-RFLP. Microbiol Immunol. 2003;47(8):557-570.
  24. Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, Gordon JI. Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature. Dec 21 2006;444(7122):1022-1023.
  25. Turnbaugh PJ, Hamady M, Yatsunenko T, et al. A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins. Nature. Jan 22 2009;457(7228):480-484.

Melatonin Induces Circadian Phase Shift

The rise and fall of Melatonin induces Circadian Phase Shifts. Lower lengths of sunlight produces higher levels of melatonin.

Melatonin is primarily thought to be found only in the pineal gland. Melatonin is mainly produced in the pineal gland during the dark phase (night). Its secretion from the pineal gland has been classically associated with circadian and circanual rhythm regulation. However, melatonin production is not confined exclusively to the pineal gland, but other tissues including retina, Harderian glands, gut (400x more that pineal gland), ovary (200X more than gut), testes, bone marrow, thymus and bone marrow of humans and lens also produce it.

Most studies continue to erroneously view Melatonin as the “Sleep Hormone”. There is a dose–response relationship between light intensity or irradiance and melatonin production. A person’s prior light history has an impact on melatonin suppression or production.  Those suffering from autoimmune disease are more likely to seclude themselves in dark rooms. Unknowingly, increasing their melatonin production and increasing their immune system hyper-reactivity.

The sun rises later in the fall and winter and nightfall arrives much easier and this disrupts the timing of melatonin release some patients with autoimmune inflammation, Metabolic syndrome,,  Seasonal Affective Disorder, or producing disruptions to reproductive health and fertility. The seasonal fluctuations of melatonin coincides with the activity of the immune system, possibly allowing the body to anticipate and handle microbial threats more efficiently.

A circadian phase shift occurs when one or more daily circadian rhythms are disrupted in the fall and winter months as the days grow shorter and the nights are longer. Another phase shift occurs during the spring and summer as the opposite occurs. In these situations, one rhythm, e.g. enhance immune response, lags behind or pushes ahead of another rhythm, e.g. decreased Vitamin D production, results in increased inflammation.

After the Summer Solstice – More Melatonin is Produced

After the June Solstice (Northern Hemisphere) or the December Solstice (Southern Hemisphere), patients call because they are having more flairs or cytokine storms. They ask why they were feeling good and happy with their progress; and three to four weeks after the Solstice, they are regressing back to their original condition. It is due to the increased production of melatonin as the days get shorter. Yes, that little bit of increased production of melatonin causes that big of a change in their body.

WARNING: If the Summer solstice is rapidly approaching. Many people will start start having some flair ups. It amazes me how the melatonin produced by an additional six minutes of darkness after the Summer Solstice can provoke cytokine storms. The four supplements mentioned above will help dampen this affect.

Low Testosterone in Men

How many different forms of Estrogen are there?

First, I want you to understand, I screwed my health up by hormone replacement. I failed to ask the following questions:

  • Does Testosterone stay as Testosterone in the body?
  • Does Testosterone convert to downstream Estrogen?
  • What does Estrogen do to a man’s body?
Healthcare providers – Medical, Chiropractic, Functional and Alternative practitioners all use this chart for Male Hormones. Ignoring the tear-outs, which they assume (ass / u / me) are not involved in the male body.

The above chart shows the hormones typically involved in men’s health. What about the rest of the hormones? Most Healthcare providers are overwhelmed by the complete hormone chart shown below. Do you see any difference between the two charts?

While at a Functional Endocrinology Seminar, I asked what Etiocholanolone was and what it did. The Functional Neurologist presenter said he did not know and because the primary developer and author of the course never wrote about it. It is not important to understand.

Dr. Dave

Insulin Resistance Causes “Low T” in Men

While Insulin Resistance Causes “Low T” in Men. Insulin Resistance causes “High T” in women.

People with pre-diabetes or insulin resistance also can have low or normal blood sugars, if their high circulating insulin levels are further challenged by a prolonged period of fasting or dietary restriction. So it is never considered.

Peer Groups include Professional and Social Media Influencers. Who are too busy promoting the popular Diagnosis du Jour memes and Fake Fad Diagnosis to drive product sales.

Symptoms of Insulin Resistance

  • Fatigue.
  • Brain fogginess and inability to focus. Sometimes the fatigue is physical, but often it is mental.
  • People with pre-diabetes or insulin resistance also can have low or normal blood sugars, if their high circulating insulin levels are further challenged by a prolonged period of fasting or dietary restriction.
  • High blood sugar. Mild, brief periods of low blood sugar are normal during the day, especially if meals are not eaten on a regular schedule. But prolonged hyperglycemia with some of the symptoms listed here, especially physical and mental fatigue, are not normal.
  • Red Blood Cell aggregation has been consistently associated with insulin resistance.
  • Feeling agitated, jittery, moody, nauseated, or having a headache is common in Insulin Resistance, without immediate relief once food is eaten.
  • Intestinal bloating. Most intestinal gas produced from dysbiosis.
  • Insulin Resistance sufferers who eat carbohydrates suffer from gas, lots of it.
  • Sleepiness. Many people with Insulin Resistance get sleepy immediately after eating a meal exceeding their Carbohydrate Tolerance.
  • Fatigue after meals, craving sugar after meals, must have dessert:
    • Cut back on carbs until you are no longer sleepy after meals and/or do not crave sugar after eating.
  • Weight gain, fat storage, difficulty losing weight. The fat in IR is generally stored around the midsection in both males and females.
  • Increased cholesterol and triglycerides.
    • When triglycerides are equal to or greater than cholesterol suspect Diabetes.
  • Increased blood pressure. It is a fact that most people with hypertension have too much insulin and are Insulin Resistant. It is often possible to show a direct relationship between the level of insulin and blood pressure: as insulin levels elevate, so does blood pressure.
  • Depression. Because carbohydrates are a natural “downer,” depressing the brain, it is not uncommon to see many depressed persons who also have Insulin Resistance.
The effects Insulin Resistance causes in the body are overlooked, because there is no drug (money to be made) for it. Insulin Resistance is easy to reverse (no money to be made). So they wait for it to progress to Diabetes before they do anything. Can you say Cha-Ching? Then they have a life long cash machine.

So, what does estrogen do in males? The most common symptoms of high estrogen in men include these eight:

  • Sexual dysfunction (low libido, decreased morning erections, decreased erectile function)
  • Enlarged breasts
  • Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
  • Increased abdominal fat (can also be a symptom of low estrogen)
  • Feeling tired
  • Loss of muscle mass
  • Emotional disturbances, especially depression
  • Enhances Insulin Resistance and the associated symptoms

Insulin Resistance Cause Red Blood Cells to Stick Together.

When Red Blood Cells stick together. They shed their oxygen. They cannot make the turn into capillaries. Which even if they did, the Red Blood Cells are not carrying a full load of oxygen. Thus the symptoms below.

Symptoms of Red Blood Cell Aggregation

  • Fatigue
  • Brain fogginess and inability to focus
  • Nerve pain
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Numbness and tingling in arms and legs
  • Muscle cramping
Hormones traveling through the blood stream are constantly sampled by the Hypothalamus in the Brain.

Are You Sensitive to Vitamin D?

Are you getting enough Vitamin D? 

For people who are outside daily for about fifteen minutes they ought to be fine. Since those with lives keeping them inside buildings, cars, stores, they received little sunlight. In addition, those of us who live in northern areas don’t get enough sun to affect our vitamin D production due to the angle of the sun in winter.

For those with an Autoimmune Condition, the story is quite different. Even short exposure to sunlight can provoke a Cytokine Storm. When I was at my worst. I could not walk out to get the mail in the sunlight. Fortunately, this condition has been resolved for six years.

Many can have an adverse reaction to Vitamin D, although the dosage they are taking is within the range that is supposed to be well tolerated according to studies. As you know Vitamin D is reported to do no evil. 

Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) Dysregulation

The conventional view of autoimmune disease is that it results from the adaptive immune system “gone awry,” leading to inflammation and destruction of human tissue. Consequently, the Medical community uses immunosuppressive agents frequently used to curb what is considered to be inappropriate immune activation. Alternative and Functional Medicine practitioners have taken the opposite approach of stimulating the immune system.  

Especially if microbes are involved. One of the agents proposed for this purpose is vitamin D. The use of vitamin D in various forms has had particular appeal because of a lower level of the precursor form 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D) often being associated with autoimmune disease.  This inverse association has fostered the view that adding vitamin D is correcting a deficiency. 

The new model discussed here is based on a different view of vitamin D and autoimmune disease. Vitamin D is a close resemblance in structure to immunosuppressive steroids. The levels of each of the vitamin D metabolites are affected by a complex network of feedback mechanisms involving multiple enzymes and receptors, indicating vitamin D is regulated more like a steroid than a nutrient. A low level of serum 25-D is seen as a deficiency rather than the result of down regulation and a causal factor leading to illness.

Certain bacteria species reported on the Genova 2200 Gastrointestinal Function Profile are the primary cause of Vitamin D Receptor dysfunction. The innate immune responses are the first line of defense against invading microbes and bacteria. Because VDR is key to the innate immune response, bacteria have developed ways to counter to activation of the Vitamin D Receptor reducing the immune response towards themselves.  VDR dysfunction would lead to chronic infections with a wide range of bacteria and other microbes, leading to inflammation and frequent elevation in autoimmune disease markers. 

When bacterial species convert bile salts into toxic bile salts. Toxic secondary bile acid levels are damaging to the cells lining the small intestine and cause extensive mucosal damage of the stomach and esophagus. This is more harmful than acid reflux alone. The major conversion of secondary bile salts is the formation of lithocholic acid. Lithocholic acid competitively inhibits etiocholanolone elimination occurring in the liver. This results in increase potential for immune stimulation and a localized fever. In addition to this lithocholic acid causes damage to Vitamin D receptors and reactions to sunlight or Vitamin D supplements.

The ability of certain bacteria to cause VDR dysfunction is believed to be key. Increasing evidence indicates that vitamin D supplementation can contribute to bacteria-induced dysfunction of the VDR. This VDR dysfunction leads to immunosuppression that, while palliative in the short term, is counterproductive for long-term healing.

Vitamin D Receptor Antibodies

Another possible explanation for vitamin D deficiency in patients with autoimmune diseases is the presence of neutralizing autoantibodies to vitamin D. Bacteria survive by confusing the immune system. When immune cells show up to access the damage like Police responding to a 911 call, being unable to see the bacteria, associate the damage with Vitamin D. The Immune Cells then mistakenly produce antibodies to Vitamin D and Vitamin D receptors. 

When this occurs, even exposure to sunlight can provoke an autoimmune response to Vit. D. Supplementing with Vit. D or even exposure to sunlight would provoke a Cytokine Storm with symptoms of Cytokine-Induced Sickness. Many with an impaired immune response may experience a mild form of Sun Poisoning. 

Sun Poisoning

Sun poisoning doesn’t really mean you’ve been poisoned. It is often the term used for a severe case of sunburn. This is usually a burn from ultraviolet (UV) radiation that inflames your skin. However, those with an autoimmune condition can experience Sun Poisoning through the activation of the immune cells to the Vitamin D being produced in the skin. This results in a person experiencing the symptoms of Cytokine-Induced Sickness

Symptoms of Sun Poisoning

Within just 15 minutes of being in the sun, you can be sunburned. But you might not know it right away. The redness and discomfort might not show up for a few hours.

You can become severely sunburned if you stay in the sun a long time and don’t wear protection. You are more likely to sunburn if you have light skin and fair hair.

Severe sunburn or sun poisoning can cause symptoms such as the following:

  • Skin redness and blistering
  • Pain and tingling
  • Swelling
  • Headache
  • Fever and chills
  • Nausea
  • Dizziness
  • Dehydration

Symptoms of a Cytokine Storm

The primary symptoms of a Cytokine Storm are:

  • Extreme fatigue
  • Low mood
  • Anxiousness
  • Anxiety
  • Insomnia
  • High fever
  • Intermittent Hot Flashes
  • Swelling and redness
  • Nausea.

Game Changing Autoimmune Protocol

Are you sick and tired of being – sick and tired? Do you agree that Autoimmunity is on the rise? Are you looking for ways to feel better?

Stimulating an Out-of-Control Immune System results in an out of control Neuro-Endo-Immune Supersystem.

All of the patients that contact me for help are all taking the standard internet-driven protocol of Anti-Inflammatory Supplements combined with Immune-Stimulating Supplements.

INFLAMMATION is a normal, protective IMMUNE RESPONSE to tissue injury caused by physical trauma, toxic chemicals, and microbes (bacteria, fungi, and parasites). It is the body’s effort to inactivate or destroy invading organisms, remove toxins, and set the stage for tissue repair. When healing is complete, the inflammatory process should subside.

  • Chronic Inflammationcauses progressive tissue injury through theChronic Immune Response.
  • The associated pain of the immune response may be severe and intolerable
  • Increased Melatonin stimulates the immune response; Melatonin is naturallyincreased in the body from July to December.
    • Blue Blocker glasses increase melatonin levels.
  • Immune stimulating foods
  • Inflammation isincreased by inappropriate stimulation and activation of your immune system, through Immune Stimulating Supplements.
    • All Alternative and Functional Therapy is based on “stimulating the immune system is good.

Chronic inflammation culminates in devastating events that can lead ultimately to multiple organ dysfunction due to abnormalities in tissue architecture and replacement by non-functional fibrous tissue. Once this stage is reached, little can be done through diet and lifestyle.

Understanding chronic inflammation is a chronic irrational immune response has given rise to insight into ways to naturally control troublesome diseases, where ‘old’ therapies such as hydrocortisone and immunosuppressants combined with immune stimulants seem to have only a limited clinical results.

Too many patients expect to continue the same failed programs while expecting different results.

Chasing symptoms and triggers is futile until the immune system is calmed and quieted. The nutritional support listed below have been game changers in the reduction and elimination of Cytokine Storms and inflammation. More often than not, calming and quieting the immune system eliminates the majority of the so called triggers without the use of food allergy testing.

These products are based on the results achieved by numerous patients after the Stimulated Cytokine Profile lab test.

PCOS Is Due to Increased Melatonin

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is due to increased Melatonin regulates a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes including hypothalamic control of circadian rhythms, regulation of ovulation in women, and immune system stimulation, and the cardiovascular system. It has also been shown to influence cell differentiation where it can either stimulate or suppress cell division depending on melatonins concentration or the type of cell exposed to increased levels of melatonin.

Increased “Cell Differentiation”

In light of this, melatonin has been proclaimed to be a cure-all for everything from treating insomnia and cancer to acting as an anti-aging agent.

Most women with PCOS grow many small cysts on their ovaries. That is why it is called Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Melatonin concentrations are higher in the fluid of large follicles (cysts) than in the small follicles (cysts) suggesting that increased melatonin in follicles (cysts) prior to ovulation may have an important role in ovulation processes.

Many women experience pain and increased symptoms during ovulation due to the spike in melatonin production. Often women call every month wondering what they did to cause a flair in their symptoms while others find that they may need to use ovulation test strips to help them know when ovulation will occur. The first question is: Where are you at in your cycle?

This would Infertility.

Increased melatonin levels are observed in women with PCOS, patients with dysfunctional reproductive organs, in patients of HPG Axis amenorrhea, and in anorexia nervosa.

  • Cassone, V. M., Chesworth, M. J., and Armstrong, S. M. (1995) Physiol. Behav. 36, 1111–1121
  • McMillen, I. C., Houghton, D. C., and Young, I. R. (1995) J. Reprod. Fertil. 49,(suppl.) 137–146
  • Cassone, V. M. (1990) Trends Neurosci. 13, 457–464
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  • Esquifino, A. I., Villanua, M. A., and Agrasal, C. (1987) J. Steroid Biochem. 27, 1089–1093
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  • Liebmann, P. M., Wo¨lfer, A., Felsner, P., Hofer, D., and Schauenstein, K. (1997) Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 112, 203–211
  • Krause, D. N., Barrios, V. E., and Duckles, S. P. (1995) Eur. J. Pharmacol. 276, 207–213
  • Hill, S. M., and Blask, D. E. (1988) Cancer 18 Res. 48, 6121–6126
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  • Roth, J. A., Rabin, R., and Agnello, K. (1997) Brain Res. 768, 63–70
  • Pierpaoli, W., Dall’ara, A., Pedrinis, E., and Regelson, W. (1991) Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 621, 291–313
  • Pierpaoli, W., and Regelson, W. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 91, 787–791
  • Huether, G. (1996) Gerontology 42, 87–96
  • Nakamura Y, Tamura H, Takayama H, and Kato H (2003) Increased endogenous level of melatonin in preovulatory human follicles
    does not directly influence progesterone production. Fertil Steril 80: 1012-1016.
  • P Jain, M Jain, C Haldar, TB Singh, S Jain. Melatonin and its correlation with testosterone in polycystic ovarian syndrome. J Hum Reprod Sci. 2013 Oct-Dec; 6(4): 253–258.
  • Terzieva DD1, Orbetzova MM, Mitkov MD, Mateva NG. Serum melatonin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2013 Apr-Jun;55(2):10-5.
  • Kadva A, Djahanbakhch O, Monson J, Di WL, Silman R. Elevated nocturnal melatonin is a consequence of gonadotropinreleasing
    hormone deficiency in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Oct; 83(10):3653-62.
  • Luboshitzky R, Qupti G, Ishay A, Shen-Orr Z, Futerman B, Linn S. Increased 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion in women with
  • polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2001 Sep; 76(3):506-10.

How Does Alkalinity Affect Mineral Absorption?

Alkaline pH and Mineral Absorption

MINERAL ASSIMILATION and UTILIZATION is affected by pH of the gut terrain and blood. Minerals have different pH levels at which they can be assimilated into the body. Minerals on the lower end of the atomic scale can be assimilated in a wider pH range, and minerals higher up on the scale require a narrower and narrower pH range in order to be assimilated by the body. For example….

There are those that are taking Iodine supplements for their “thyroid condition”, who are also “alkalizing”. What do you think their chances are that they are assimilating the iodine?

pH control impacts every biochemical process in the body including…

ENZYMES which are part of that biochemical process. There are hundreds if not thousands of enzyme processes which take place in the body. Many are so specific that they are like complex square pegs that need to “fit” into specific square holes in order to carry out their duty. If blood or gut pH is off balance even a little, some important pegs are not “fitting” their respective slots. Enzyme function and thus life itself begins to suffer.

The Structural Components of Fibromyalgia and Hip Degeneration

Fibromyalgia symptoms and Hip Degeneration are relieved or eliminated by Correction of the Category 2 Structural Distortion Pattern. Learning all things Lomi Lomi Massage would be in the best interest of anyone suffering as a consequence of fibromyalgia.

Fibromyalgia and the Category II Sacroiliac Slip Separation

Symptoms and Conditions associated with a Category 2 Distortion Pattern

When ligaments in the pelvis stretch and tear the sacroiliac joint separates and the sacrum slips on one side; the spine becomes imbalanced, the vertebrae of the spine become misaligned and the nerve roots down the entire spinal cord can become irritated and compressed, effecting normal neurological function.

The separation of the sacroiliac weight bearing joint as shown on the cover results in reciprocal distortion in the shoulder girdle and neck, as well as disrupting the balance of other weight bearing joints such as the knees, ankles and arches of the feet. This tasty hemp oil can be a great short term solution for the following symptoms.

Thus Category II symptoms may be varied and distant from the vicinity of the pelvis, and may include some of the following:

* Jaw problems * groin pain

* Neck pain * lateral thigh pain

* Ear pain, loss of balance, tinnitus * knee, ankle and feet problems

* Lateral headaches * hypoglycemia

* Shoulder, arm, hand pain * menstrual problems

* Lateral chest pain * low back pain

Concerned about your Health?Call today! 530-615-4083

The pelvis is the foundation for your body, held together only by ligaments. These ligaments are full of nerve endings. Theses nerve endings monitor movement, non-movement, stretch and pressure within the sacroiliac joint. Think of the pelvis the same as you would the foundation on your house. Do you want the foundation level and stable or loose and moving? Correct – Level and stable. What happens when the foundation on a house starts sagging? Doors and windows stick or will not open. Walls crack. Plumbing does not work. The roof sags and the chimney does not stand up straight anymore. Sound familiar?

Three joints of the pelvis

The pelvis has three joints. The pubic symphysis (1) in front serves as a pivot point to allow slight movement, torsion with movement or expansion during pregnancy. The two sacroiliac joints (2&3) in the rear have more nerve ending monitoring than any joint in the body. The temporomandibular joint would be second. The sacroiliac monitors the body’s center of gravity located between the sacroiliac joints. The temporomandibular joint acts like a plumb bob monitoring the location of your head. Gravity provides a constant pull against these joints so they always have a reference point. Both the sacroiliac and temporomandibular joints serve as satellites providing the brain with information on the position of your body. An example of this would be global positioning satellites providing information to the GPS in your car. The brain then sends signals to muscles throughout the body to maintain posture and stabilize your body as you go through your daily activities.

Pelvis Axis of Rotation

No part of the body can be understood except in relation to the whole.

Hip Joint Axis of Rotation

Hip Degeneration

Understanding that a 16% reduction in the diameter of the blood vessels cuts the blood flow in half. A Category 2 posterior-inferior ilium tightens the acetabulum ligaments, essentially applying a tourniquet, to the femur head. This tourniquet is periodically released as the person sits, bends over going through the activity of daily life. Blood is never completely shut off. But reduced daily depriving the cells of the bone and connective tissue of oxygen and nutrients necessary for good joint health.

Hip Joint degeneration starts as a Category 2 Distortion Pattern.

Over the course of a week or month, the reduction is insignificant. However, over the years of living with an uncorrected Category 2, the degradation of the bone and joint accumulates. It is assumed a consequence of age. Rather than a correctable, reversible condition.

Positional Awareness

This reminds me of a scene in the original Stargate movie when Daniel discovered the meaning of the seven symbols. In order to determine the location of an object in space you must know the location and a point of origin. This become more complex when movement is involved, i.e. movement of your body during exercise because now direction of movement must be factored in. Your body has an onboard GPS system continuously monitoring the location of every joint in your body relative to two specific points – your center of gravity located between the sacroiliac joints and the center of your head located between the temporomandibular joints.

Finding your position is space.

The vestibular system of the inner ear (semicircular canals, the saccule and the utricle) monitors movement three dimensionally in the X, Y and Z planes. The gyroscopes or vestibular system in the inner ear use this information to determine direction of movement. Information from the vestibular system of the inner ear is sent to the cerebellum where it is processed with location of the sacroiliac and temporomandibular joint. This combined information is then used to control muscle tone, tension and movement throughout your daily activities. Simply put this information is used to keep your head over your butt. The muscles used to do this are attached to bones at every Fibromyalgia “Trigger Point” location.

Inner ear monitors body movement based upon the location of the center of gravity and head.

Why doesn’t your GPS work in a parking garage? It lost a good signal from satellites! Why does a person have vertigo? It is due to scrambled signals from the sacroiliac joints and temporomandibular joints and not from an exclusive inner ear problem. In the past I spoke with a Medical Doctor specializing in vertigo by treating “ear rocks.” The Doctor with great enthusiasm explained the treatment of having the patient roll their head around until all the ear rocks had settled to the bottom of the vestibular system. He hung up on me when I asked what happens when they bend over to tie their shoe.

Prior to 2000, GPS signals were scrambled making them useless for anyone but the military. The scrambled signals would report your location miles away shifting constantly from where you actually were. When the GPS signals from the sacroiliac and temporomandibular joint are scrambled your muscles will be constantly attempting to maintain their location. This causes a build up of lactic acid and carbon dioxide in the muscles. Many people associate this with their burning muscles. Eventually, the muscles fatigue and adhesions will form to compensate for the lack of strength. Many notice reduced flexibility when this occurs.

You can check if your internal GPS is scrambled. First look at your stance.

  • Are your feet under your shoulders?
  • Do you have a wide bipod stance?
  • Are the feet pointed to the front or off to the side?
  • Do you have to watch where your feet are when walking or running?
  • Do you stumble or fall if you look away?
  • Are you considered clumsy?
  • Stand with your legs barely touching with your feet pointing towards the front. Close your eyes and take in a deep breath and quickly let it out. Do you start swaying or clunk off to either side. Be careful because some of you will fall over because your system is in dire need of help.

Concerned about your Health?Call today! 530-615-4083

The wider the stance and the more the feet are pointed out – the more instability your sacroiliac joints are suffering from.

Pelvic Foundation Becomes Unstable

As you go through life events can traumatize or distress the pelvic and temporomandibular joints. Birth trauma starts it off. Fall-down-go-boom would be next continuing throughout life. This causes a bad case of “CB” AKA Crooked Butt. Maybe you do a face plant or get hit in the face. Either way, it doesn’t matter. The satellite signal starts getting scrambled. Inflammation corrodes connective tissue and ligaments holding the sacroiliac joints stable. Add to the influence of excess hormones causing ligaments to lose their elasticity. The pelvis shifts causing a twist (AKA scoliosis or spinal curvature) throughout the body up to the temporomandibular joint. For anyone who is looking to learn more about this condition or suffers from scoliosis and is looking to find treatment options, it may be worth doing some research, as it is not just straight forward.

Category 2 Muscle Irradiation

Category 2 Muscle Irradiation

The separation and stretch of the ligaments stimulates the Category II muscle groups to irradiate muscle contractions though out the body to maintain structural stability. The Category II muscle irradiation is driven by the influence of gravity into the weight bearing sensory nerves of the sacroiliac. This effect is the same principal used by Crossfit and Kettlebell enthusiasts. The principle is called muscle irradiation and works by creating tension in surrounding muscles which increases neuro-muscular recruitment within the target muscles. This principle is described in “Power to the People” by the well-known Russian trainer, Pavel Tsatsouline (you can ask me how to pronounce that!). The difference is the sacroiliac separation causes an involuntary defensive response while those exercising seek to induce the effect to develop more power.

The most profound aspect of gravity induced muscle irradiation is that astronauts do not snore in space. They were able to induce slight snoring when the astronaut wore a EEG cap (much like the tight fitting bathing caps worn by swimmers) to measure brain waves. I previously snored like a freight train until my Category II was corrected. To experience muscle irradiation, you can stand up, relax your body. Shake out your arms and relax them. Now with one hand make a tight fist while keeping the rest of your body relaxed. You will feel the tension creep up from your hand to the elbow. Then the shoulder and across the chest and into the neck. That is muscle irradiation.

The extra stretch in the sacroiliac prompts the psoas/diaphragm muscle to start tightening. This pulls on the esophagus stretching it. Making it hard to swallow in addition to constant stimulation of the production of saliva. This constant drip of saliva neutralizes stomach acid. The abdominal organs are compressed. They now have trouble expanding and contacting which is necessary for proper digestion.

Bowel Gas in Abdomen

Chewing should stimulate digestive chemistry but the twist makes chewing uncomfortable. Digestion begins to suffer. Bacteria ferment food improperly chewed and not chemically digested. Fermentation produces the gas seen in an x-ray. In order for gas to be seen on an x-ray, it must reach atmospheric pressure. That is 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi). That is half a car tire pressure. The exercise balls used in gyms have a pressure of two psi. A 350-pound football player would pop the ball long before the air in the ball could be compressed. Fourteen point seven pounds of pressure in the colon pressed down on by the psoas/diaphragm contraction into the hipbones will stretch the weakened ligaments separating the microgrooves in the sacroiliac providing weight-bearing stability to the pelvis allowing the pelvis to further shift. This stimulate more muscle irradiation. The pain produced by sacroiliac separation is often mistaken for sciatica.

A little gas pressure has tremendous power.

This pelvic twist causes the lumbar disc to twist in the opposite direction to keep your head over your center of gravity. The extra wear and tear on the disc results in a bulging disc. If the pelvis is stabilized using the Sacro Occipital Blocking procedures, disc bulges have an excellent chance or repairing. In the meantime it is recommended that you use natural forms of pain relief, like speed greens, to treat the joint pain as it can be significant.

Organ Function Compromised

Not only are the organs of digestion – stomach, pancreas, gallbladder, small intestine, and colon function impaired. The sex organs are compromised. The uterus is suspended from the pelvic hipbones and anchored at the pubic bone. The twist occurring in the pelvis causes the uterus and cervix to twist. The uterus must now cramp to force menstrual flow through the narrowed cervix. Circulation of blood to the pituitary is impaired as the cranial bones torque in response to the pelvic twist. This alters hormone production impacting the monthly cycle and fertility.

Inflammation necessary for healing is increased. Muscles strength weakened from chronic inflammation is compensated for by inflammation stimulating the formation of adhesions wound throughout the body like a spider web. Flexibility begins to suffer. Circulation is reduced not only in the blood but also the lymphatics. Toxins build up in the body. Adrenals go into alarm stage until they become fatigued.

Most doctors practice in a manner that is a direct reflection of the expectations of their peer group. Healthcare peer groups partition the body out into the various specialties. All health conditions are then viewed through the prism of their specialties. Every once in a while someone fills the specific criteria for that specialty to have a miracle cure. Only by looking at the complete body can conditions such as Fibromyalgia be understood. At Wellness Alternatives, we evaluate your unique physiology to develop a treatment plan specific to your needs. Call us today for your assessment.Concerned about your Health?

Call today! 530-615-4083

Hypothalamic Sampling Hormones Requires Blood Flow

Sampling of hormones (including the sex hormones) by the hypothalamus requires consistent blood flow. In the body, blood carries hormones released by endocrine glands and carries them to body parts that need them.

In parasympathetic withdrawal, diagnosis is usually considered adrenal fatigue. The volume of blood shifts from the muscles and brain to the central abdominal compartment. The blood flow to the brain is not stopped when this occurs. The flow is reduced and Poiseuille’s Laws come into play.

The circulatory system provides many examples of Poiseuille’s law in action—with blood flow regulated by changes in vessel size and blood pressure. Blood vessels are not rigid but elastic. Adjustments to blood flow are primarily made by varying the size of the vessels, since the resistance is so sensitive to the radius. This is done by the Abdominal Brain through the release of NeuroEndocrine transmitters, i.e. Serotonin – sero = “blood”, tonin = “pertaining to”.

A 19% decrease in flow is caused by a 5% decrease in radius of the blood vessels. The body may compensate by increasing blood pressure by 19%, but this presents hazards to the heart and any vessel that has weakened walls.

This decrease in radius is surprisingly small for this situation. To restore the blood flow in spite of this buildup would require an increase in the pressure difference of a factor of two, with subsequent strain on the heart.


In severe and/or chronic illness, profound changes occur in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Ischemia and inflammation disrupt the porous Blood-Brain-Barrier surrounding the hypothalamus. The observed decrease in serum concentration of both hormones and neuroendocrine transmitter (neurotransmitters in the blood) are not compatible with a negative feedback loop.

Ischemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive, healthy and functioning properly). Ischemia is generally caused by problems with blood vessels, with resultant damage to or dysfunction of tissue or organs. It also means local anemia in a given part of a body sometimes resulting from congestion (such as vasoconstriction, red blood cell aggregation due to insulin resistance/diabetes). Ischemia comprises not only insufficiency of oxygen, but also reduced availability of nutrients and inadequate removal of metabolic wastes.

Hepatic Portal Hypertension

Parasympathetic Withdrawal (vasodilation) with blood pooling in the Abdominal Compartment makes the Movement Compartment and Brain/Spinal Cord Ischemic. At the periphery of the ischemic region, the so-called ischemic penumbra, neuronal damage throughout the body develops more slowly because blood flow arising from adjacent vascular territories (collateral flow) keeps blood perfusion above the threshold for immediate cell death. In the ischemic core, the major mechanism of cell death is energy failure caused by Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation (O2/GD). The hypothalamus and midbrain are most vulnerable to ischemia.

Neuron Vulnerability

Neurons in the most vulnerable areas cease to respond or show only faint responses and develop irreversible ischemic or post-ischemic damage. The hypothalamus responds to ischemic insults rigorously without having irreversible ischemic or post-ischemic damage.

The thalamus-hypothalamus interface represents a discrete boundary where neuronal vulnerability to ischemia is high in thalamus (like more rostral neocortex, striatum, hippocampus). In contrast hypothalamic neurons are comparatively resistant, generating weaker and recoverable anoxic depolarization similar to brainstem neurons, possibly the result of a Na/K pump that better functions during ischemia.

There is a well recognized but poorly understood caudal-to rostral increase in the brain`s vulnerability to neuronal injury caused by metabolic stress (insulin resistance).

Several brain regions, including the caudate, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, are vulnerable to hypoxic–ischemic brain injury. During O2/GD, hypothalamic neurons gradually depolarized during ischemic exposure. The O2/glucose deprivation (O2/GD) response induces failure of the Na+/K+ pump. The recovery is slow with chronic ischemic penumbrance

Without oxygen and glucose, neurons cannot generate the ATP needed to fuel the ionic pumps that maintain the ionic gradient across the neuronal membrane, mainly the Na+−K+ ATPase.

In the ischemic penumbra, the flow reduction is not sufficient to cause energy failure, and neurons remain viable for a prolonged period of time after the insult, but the neurons are stressed and critically vulnerable to pathogenic events that may tip their fragile metabolic balance. Excessive extracellular accumulation of glutamate is a major factor contributing to production of cytotoxic nitric oxide, free radicals and arachidonic acid metabolites. These events lead to necrosis or programmed cell death depending on the intensity of the insult and the metabolic state of the neurons. Injured and dying cells have a key role in post-ischemic inflammation because they release danger signals that activate the immune system.

Neurons that demonstrate particular vulnerability to ischemic challenges have been termed “selectively vulnerable neurons”. Of the entire forebrain, the neurons of the hippocampus are the most vulnerable.

Summary: Parasympathetic Dominance causes Ischemia to the Hippocampus, Hypothalamus, and Pituitary producing alterations in the HPA, HPT, HPD and HPG axis.