Inulin – Prebiotic Fiber with Powerful Allergic Reactions

Health Food products are containing Stealth Fiber that is labeled as a “Natural Fiber”, “Natural Sweetener”, and/or a “Natural Prebiotic”. This “Stealth fiber” is being increasingly added to processed foods, while not a problem for most; it can cause gastrointestinal discomfort for some who may not know they’re consuming too much of it. The fiber is called “Inulin.” Food companies hit the trifecta with inulin. They can market inulin in three different ways but only one ingredient.

Inulin is commonly found in:[i]

  • Wheat
  • Onions
  • Asparagus
  • Bananas
  • Plantains
  • Garlic
  • Artichokes
  • Leeks.

Do you have problems when eating these common foods? If you do you may have an Inulin Sensitivity.

The average daily dietary consumption of inulin-type fructans has been estimated to be between 3 and 11 grams for Europeans[ii] and between 1 and 4 grams in the United States.[iii]

Food manufacturers, faced with demands to reduce calories. sugar, fat, and sodium while increasing fiber and flavor, are increasingly turning to products like inulin. They have discovered they can chemically manipulate the chemical structure of inulin to mimic tastes and textures consumers want in food. Their use is likely to continue to grow and “there is the potential for overuse.”

All ingredients present in whole foods work harmoniously with each other. The opposite occurs when refining a single ingredient out of an herb and calling it “medicine” often results in a deadly poison, so too does refining a single ingredient out of whole food often turns that ingredient into a toxic substance. Do not be seduced by those only looking at the so-called benefits of Inulin. It has a very real dark side.

Inulin can be found in high fiber breakfast bars, yogurt, ice creams, and beverages among other processed foods. The label may list inulin, chicory root extract, oligosaccharide, or oligofructose. For example, the Fiber One Chewy Bar with 9 grams of dietary fiber lists chicory root extract as its top ingredient.

Inulin caused wheal and flair.

Because of its expanding use in processed foods, allergic reactions to this dietary ingredient may occur more frequently than currently recognized.[iv] The identification of an association with allergic reactions to natural foods labeled as containing a “Natural Fiber”, “Natural Sweetener”, “Natural Prebiotic” with inulin being this ingredient should be considered with reoccurring health problems.

Inulin is increasingly used in processed foods because it has unusually adaptable characteristics. Its flavor ranges from bland to subtly sweet. It is being used to replace sugar, fat, and flour. Due to the body’s limited ability to process fructans, inulin has minimal increasing impact on blood sugar. It is used in Diabetic friendly food with claims that inulin is helpful in managing blood sugar-related illnesses. This is advantageous because inulin contains 25-35% of the food energy of carbohydrates (starch, sugar) and is touted as being “high fiber”, “naturally sweet”, and “low glycemic”.

Because products are being labels as containing “All Natural Fiber, All Natural Sweetener or an All Natural Prebiotic” people are consuming high quantities of Inulin. In addition to ingesting inulin in the form of a whole food; by eating chicory root, Jerusalem artichokes or other foods naturally high in this substance such as bananas, plantains, onions, Jerusalem artichokes, asparagus, leeks, and garlic.

In terms of nutrition, it is considered a form of soluble fiber and is sometimes categorized as a prebiotic. Conversely, it is also considered a FODMAP, a class of carbohydrates, which are problematic for some individuals through causing overgrowth of intestinal methanogenic bacteria.

Symptoms Associated with Inulin Consumption

The consumption of inulin (in particular, by sensitive or unaccustomed individuals) can lead to gas, flatulence, bloating, abdominal pain, excess gastrointestinal rumbling, and diarrhea and products that contain inulin will sometimes include a warning to add it gradually to one’s diet. Generalized wheal-and-flare reaction, laryngeal edema, nasal itching, cough, and breathing difficulties. Severe Th2 responses (anaphylactic-like) can occur after eating types of health foods containing inulin.[v]

For this reason, a food is considered unacceptable if it causes one of the following symptoms:

  • Generalized wheal-and-flare reaction
  • Laryngeal edema
  • Nasal itching
  • Cough
  • Breathing difficulties.
  • Too much flatulence
  • Too much intestinal pressure
  • Too much pain
  • Too much intestinal noise
  • Too many intestinal cramps or diarrhea, as observed and evaluated by the person themselves.
Wheal and flair cause by Inulin.

At high doses, increased flatulence and osmotic pressure can cause intestinal discomfort. These doses vary widely from person to person and also depend on the type of food in which inulin or oligofructose is incorporated.[vi] With regard to labeling, both inulin and oligofructose are gradually being accepted as “dietary fibers” in most countries around the world. The mention of their “bifidogenic effect” on food labels has also been legally accepted in several countries.

These symptoms are difficult to measure objectively. Moreover, the same amount of flatulence can be acceptable to one person while being too much for another person, i.e. Women won’t admit to it. Guys think it’s a badge of honor.

Based on inulin’s ability to cause digestive distress in some, I would recommend avoiding inulin (in its food sources and as an ingredient) if you suffer from gastrointestinal issues — celiac disease, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), candida (no sugar), SIBO (small intestinal bacterial overgrowth).

It has been speculated that people fall into one of three categories regarding sensitivity to inulin:

1) Nonsensitive persons can consume 30 g/d (grams per day) or more of the compound with little or no symptoms as described;

2) Sensitive persons can consume 10 g/d of the compound without discomfort but might experience undesirable reactions with doses of 20 g/d;

3) Very sensitive persons can experience symptoms of intolerance at doses as small as of 10 g/d.

Only the person who eats inulin containing foods can judge the intestinal acceptability of a food. Diarrhea is certainly a symptom of nonacceptability, but soft stools may be an acceptable or even desired phenomenon.[vii]

Lactose Intolerance

Enzymes in the small intestine break down lactose. In cases of true lactose maldigestion, lactose passes to the large intestine without breaking down and is fermented there by the bacterial flora. In lactose-intolerant subjects this causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as flatulence, bloating, abdominal pain, excess gastrointestinal rumbling, and diarrhea. Many lactose-intolerant subjects claim that they cannot tolerate any lactose at all in everyday life.[viii]

Symptoms of inulin intolerance usually include flatulence, bloating, cramps, abdominal pain, diarrhea and rarely, constipation. Although inulin is increasingly used as a food ingredient because of its potential health benefits,[ix] i.e. dietary fiber, prebiotic, natural sweetener, & diabetic-friendly. A double-blind placebo- controlled food challenge has shown an increase of sensitivity with inulin.[x]

The increased use of inulin, as a food ingredient has led to a greater incidence of hypersensitivity but any gastrointestinal distress would be attributed to being lactose intolerant because of the increased addition of inulin into dairy products.

[i] van Loo J, Coussement P, de Leenheer L,Hoebregs H, Smits G. On the presence of inulin and oligofructose as natural ingredients in the western diet. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1995;35:525-52.

[ii] van Loo J, Coussement P, de Leenheer L,Hoebregs H, Smits G. On the presence of inulin and oligofructose as natural ingredients in the western diet. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1995;35:525-52.

[iii] Moshfegh AJ, Friday JE, Goldman JP, Ahuja JK. Presence of inulin and oligofructose in the diets of Americans. J Nutr 1999;129(7 Suppl):1407S-11S.

[iv] F. Gay-Crossier, G. Schreiber, C. Hauser. Anaphylaxis from Inulin in Vegetables and Processed Food. N Engl J Med 2000; 342:1372May 4, 2000

[v] Franck P, Moneret-Vautrin D, A, Morisset M, Kanny G, Mégret-Gabeaux M, L, Olivier J, L, Anaphylactic Reaction to Inulin: First Identification of Specific IgEs to an Inulin Protein Compound. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2005;136:155-158

[vi] Paul A. A. Coussement. Inulin and Oligofructose: Safe Intakes and Legal Status. J. Nutr. 129: 1412S–1417S, 1999.

[vii] Briet, F., Achour, L., Flourié, B., Beaugerie, L., Pellier, P., Franchisseur, C., Bornet, F. & Rambaud, J.-C. (1995) Symptomatic response to varying levels of fructo-oligosaccharides consumed occasionally or regularly. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr.49:501-507.

[viii] U Teuri, H Vapaatalo, R Korpela. Fructooligosaccharides and lactulose cause more symptoms in lactose maldigesters and subjects with pseudohypolactasia than in control lactose digesters. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:973–9.

[ix] Roberfroid MB, Van Loo JA, Gibson GR: The bifidogenic nature of chicory inulin and its hydrolysis products. J Nutr 128:11-19, 1998

[x] Chandra R, Barron JL: Anaphylactic reaction to intravenous sinistrin (Inutest). Ann Clin Biochem 39:76, 2002

The Story of Your Two Brains

Did you know that many diseases could be traced to a breakdown in the gastrointestinal tract?

Do an internet search for neurotransmitters and the common result will be: “Neurotransmitters are biochemicals produced in the brain that affects us mentally, emotionally and physically.”  Despite the fact that Ninety nine (99%) percent of the neurotransmitters in your body are actually created in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract or your Second Brain), and every brain chemical known as a neurotransmitter is found there.  Doing some quick math, this means that the majority are focusing on the the 1% formed in the brain and ignoring the 99% made in the gut.

For proper thyroid function, 20% of the thyroid hormone in your body must be converted into its active form, which is done in the GI tract. The secretion of TSH is inhibited by elevated levels of dopamine, and stimulated by elevated norepinephrine. Conversely, a study published in 1987 in the “European Journal of Endocrinology” found that low levels of dopamine were associated with elevated thyroid hormone levels in patients with Graves’ Disease. The effect of Serotonin pathways remained an open question. This means the GI tract, or gut, plays a very important role in achieving optimal thyroid health.

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Neurotransmitters & Thyroid Interactions

Serotonin & Thyroid Interactions

  • Thyroid hormone levels are directly related to platelet serotonin levels.
  • Low thyroid hormone levels (especially T3) dampens cerebral bioenergetic metabolism which has been directly correlated to Major Depressive Disorder (MDD).
  • Thyroid hormones activate 5-TH2A serotonin receptors
  • Serotonin is used as a messenger to relaese TSH from the pituitary
  • Serotonin is involved with modualting intracellular T3 prodction via type II 5’deiodinase

Dopamine & Thyroid Interaction

  • Dopamine levels in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) stimulate the paraventricular nucleus
  • The paraventricular nucleus stimulates the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis
  • The HPT Axis modualtes TSH and T3 prodcution

Acetylcholine & Thyroid Interaction

  • Thyroid hormone levels affect the activities of AChE in the
    • frontal cortex
    • hipocampus
    • cerebellum
  • Hypothyroidism leads to a global loss of cholinergic activity, but with the greatest potential to develop cerebellum degeneration.

GABA & Thyroid Hormone Interactions

  • Thyroid hormones
    • modulate GABA Release
    • Activate the conversion of glutamate to GABA
    • Enhances GABA receptor sensitivity
  • GABA Issues
    • Low levels and/or low receptor sensitivity leads to anxiety

Melatonin & Thyroid Hormone Interaction Read More

  • Normal melatonin stimulates TSH production in pituitary
  • Short day and long nights increase melatonin production
  • Melatonin is immune stimulating in Autoimmunity
  • Increased melatonin levels suppress TSH production through:
    • Short days and longer nights
    • Melatonin supplementation
    • Free T3, T4 and TSH levels are lower with melatonin supplementation
53 year old woman with undiagnosed Hashimoto's. Changing thyroid medication made no difference in TSH. In the past two months has been having increasing numbers of cytokine storms (hot flashes, unable to sleep, severe fatigue, swelling, joint pain, reacts to all foods)
53 year old woman with undiagnosed Hashimoto’s. Changing thyroid medication made no difference in TSH. In the past two months has been having increasing numbers of cytokine storms (hot flashes, unable to sleep, severe fatigue, swelling, joint pain, reacts to all foods)

Seventy (70%) percent of your immune system resides in this area – your gut, and the GI tract has many important functions for your health including digestion, nutrient absorption, elimination, detoxification, hormone metabolism and energy production.

What Are Neurotransmitters and How They Affect Your Life?

Just like hormones govern many chemical functions in the body, the nervous, endocrine and immune system (NEI Supersystem) chemical functions are governed by messengers called neurotransmitters. Read More …

Nearly every chemical that controls the brain is also located in the gastrointestinal region, including hormones and neurotransmitters such as Serotonin, Dopamine, Glutamate, GABA and Norepinephrine. The gut contains 100 million neurons – more than the spinal cord. But there are also two-dozen small brain proteins; major cells of the immune system; one class of the body’s natural opiates; and native benzodiazepines.

A neurotransmitter is a chemical messenger used by neurons (nerve cells) to communicate in one direction with other neurons or receptors in the NEI Supersystem. These neurotransmitters are either excitatory or inhibitory. Think of them as text messages or emails between the nervous, endocrine (hormone) and immune system.

Inhibitory neurotransmitters are the system’s “off switches”, decreasing the likelihood that an excitatory signal is sent. Inhibitory transmitters regulate the activity of the excitatory neurotransmitters, much like the brakes on a car. Physiologically, the inhibitory transmitters act as the body’s natural tranquilizers, generally serving to induce sleep, promote calmness, and decrease aggression.

55 year old woman with H. pylori, dental infection and pinworms, Hashimoto's suffering uncontrolled cytokine storms.
55 year old woman suffering for several years. Lab testing showed she currently has H. pylori, dental infection and pinworms, and Autoimmune Hashimoto’s suffering uncontrolled cytokine storms. Eating healthy “High Lectin” diet provoking TH17 immune responses.

Excitatory neurotransmitters are the system’s “on switches”, increasing the likelihood that an excitatory signal is sent. Excitatory transmitters can be likened to the accelerator of a car, regulating many of the body’s most basic functions, including thought processes, higher thinking, and sympathetic activity, i.e. stimulates heartbeat, raises blood pressure, dilates the pupils, dilates the trachea and bronchi, stimulates the conversion of liver glycogen into glucose, shunts blood away from the skin and viscera to the skeletal muscles, brain, and heart, inhibits peristalsis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and inhibits contraction of the bladder and rectum. Physiologically, the excitatory transmitters act as the body’s natural stimulants, generally serving to promote wakefulness, energy, and activity.

Microbe hackersSpecial molecules in the nerves and on the lining of the gastrointestinal tract and hormone producing glands are called receptors. They are shaped to receive only one type of neurotransmitter, which fits it like a key in a lock. The result is that if an excitatory neurotransmitter reaches the specific receptor, the cell tends to stimulate a response. If an inhibitory neurotransmitter reaches the receptor, the cell shuts down or does not respond.

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Neurotransmitters in Short Supply

If neurotransmitters of either type are in short supply, or if they are blocked from reaching their proper receptors, (as a result of either genetics and/or chemical use) cell function tends to be abnormal. The lack of neurotransmitter function then results in unsuitable or counterproductive performance. Microbes are not the dumb little paramecium we studied in junior high biology. We now know microbes have evolved strategies to survive in our bodies and evade detection or avoid provoking an immune response. Microbes can hack into the NEI Supersystem disrupting neurotransmitter communication and at the same time over producing gasotransmitters. This cause certain neurotransmitters to be either under or over produce as the body tries to re-establish control of the the NEI Supersystem. Read More …

Read More: Gasotransmitters

Imagine trying to communicate with a family member by text messages while hackers are in your computer. You are trying to tell them to turn off the oven. Your family member will have trouble receiving your message because the system is being overwhelmed with spam. You have a limited number of texts before the bill gets really expensive. Or you send the message and it is blocked by the spam filter. Any number of scenarios can occur simultaneously throughout this very complex system.

Actually, 95% of all serotonin in the body is in the gut, where it triggers digestion. Nerve cells in the gut also use serotonin to signal back to the brain. This information can train us not to eat certain foods by communicating pain, gas and other terrible feelings.

Two brains are better than one.

Two brains are better than one. At least that is the rationale for the close – sometimes too close – relationship between the human body’s two brains, the one at the top of the spinal cord and the hidden but powerful brain in the gut known as the enteric nervous system.

Just as the cranial brain can upset the gut, the gut can also upset the brain.

The cranial brain is protected by the blood-brain barrier.

The abdominal brain is protected only by the intestinal lining. When threatened will begin directing the immune cells to defend itself.

The gut has no such protection.

In fact, anyone who has ever felt butterflies in the stomach before giving a speech, a gut feeling that flies in the face of fact or a bout of intestinal urgency the night before an examination has experienced the actions of the dual nervous systems.

The Second Brain in the gut, known as the enteric nervous system, is located in sheaths of tissue lining the esophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon, and plays a key role in human emotions. But few know the enteric nervous system exists, and therefore gut health is often overlooked. Symptoms from the two brains can get confused, and just as the brain can upset the gut, the gut can also upset the brain.

Read More: The Enteric Nervous System: The Brain in the Gut

Brain-based neurologist will correctly say neurotransmitters cannot be lab tested. This is due to the blood-brain-barrier that protects the brain. Very little can cross that membrane and if it is you are likely heading for the hospital. However, gut-based splanchnologist (those who study the viscera AKA: organs) know you can use neurotransmitter testing for the Second Brain. There are two types of testing that can be done effectively. One type of test measures the neurotransmitter levels. The other measures the pre-cursor components to determine which neurotransmitters are or are not being made. For more information on neurotransmitter testing call 530-615-4083 or email

Call today! 530-615-4083

The human brain is very capable of automatically manufacturing the quantity of chemicals it needs if it is given the raw materials (nutrients from foods) to do so. However, while the normal diet supplies enough of the raw materials the brain needs to manufacture the needed level of neurotransmitters with a healthy, normally functioning gastrointestinal tract. Microbes make significant contribution not only to imbalanced neurotransmitters but also to the creation of a Ghetto Gut. Those with a Ghetto Gut are not capable of providing nourishment for the body or the production of neurotransmitters. Additionally, stress, worry, chemical use, poor nutrition, pollution and other factors of modern life are known to deplete neurotransmitter levels.

The role of the enteric nervous system is to manage every aspect of digestion, from the esophagus to the stomach, small intestine and colon. The Second Brain, or gut brain, accomplishes all that with the same tools as the big brain, a sophisticated nearly self-contained network of neural circuitry, neurotransmitters and proteins. The independence is a function of the enteric nervous system’s complexity.

Have you ever wondered how a quadriplegic can digest food when the rest of the body is unable to communicate with the brain? Answer: The Second Brain

When someone skips lunch, the gut is more or less silent. Eat a pastrami sandwich, and contractions all along the small intestines mix the food with enzymes and move it toward the lining for absorption to begin. If the pastrami is rotten, reverse contractions will force it – and everything else in the gut – into the stomach and back out through the esophagus at high speed.

In each situation, the gut must assess conditions, decide on a course of action and initiate a reflex. The gut monitors pressure. It monitors the progress of digestion. It detects nutrients, and it measures acid and salts. It’s a little chemical lab. The enteric system does all this on its own, with little help from the central nervous system.

But 95 percent of the body’s serotonin is housed in the gut, where it acts as a neurotransmitter and a signaling mechanism. The digestive process begins when a specialized cell, an enterochromaffin, squirts serotonin into the wall of the gut, which has at least seven types of serotonin receptors. The receptors, in turn, communicate with nerve cells to start digestive enzymes flowing or to start things moving through the intestines.

Serotonin also acts as a go-between, keeping the brain in the skull up to date with what is happening in the brain below. Such communication is mostly one way, with 90 percent traveling from the gut to the head.

The enteric and central nervous systems use the same hardware, as it were, to run two very different programs. Serotonin, for instance, is crucial to feelings of well-being. Hence the success of the antidepressants known, as S.S.R.I.’s that raise the level of serotonin available to the brain by blocking serotonin receptors in the gut.

Many of those messages are unpleasant, and serotonin is involved in sending them. Food sensitivities cause serotonin to be released in the gut, leading to pain, gas and other terrible feelings. The gut is not an organ from which you wish to receive frequent progress reports. These constant updates deplete the serotonin levels leading to symptoms of:

  • Low mood
  • Sleep difficulties
  • Weight difficulties
  • Cravings/poor impulse control
  • Headaches
  • Hot flashes
  • Intestinal complaints
  • Low libido

Serotonin is also implicated in one of the most debilitating gut disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, or I.B.S., which causes abdominal pain and cramping, bloating and, in some patients, alternating diarrhea and constipation. Therefore, a healthy stomach is essential to keep the precise balance of chemicals for optimal mental and physical health.

For more information on neurotransmitter testing call 530-615-4083 or email

Is Your Jet Lag Really Altitude Sickness?

Those with health conditions may be more prone to symptoms of Jet Lag, which are remarkably similar to Altitude Sickness. The common explanation for Jet Lag is Time Zone changes. Here is a different take on it. For the duration of the flight, you are sitting in a Hypobaric Chamber. That is the opposite of the Hyperbaric Chamber used to push oxygen into the body.

For the duration of your flight, you are sitting in a Hypobaric Chamber.

Jet Lag Symptoms

Symptoms of jet lag can vary. You may experience only one symptom or you may have many. If you have ever experienced higher altitude, you may have experienced symptoms similar to Jet Lag. The symptoms of Jet Lag may include:

  • Disturbed sleep — such as insomnia, early waking or excessive sleepiness
  • Daytime fatigue
  • Difficulty concentrating or functioning at your usual level
  • Stomach problems, constipation or diarrhea
  • A general feeling of not being well
  • Mood changes
  • Symptoms are worse the farther you travel
Amazing similarity in symptoms between Jet Lag and Altitude Sickness.

Time Zone Jet Lag Theory

Let me ask this. Have you ever had to get up early or stay out late for some event? Essentially, having to get up early or staying out late is the same as changing time zone. Another example would be Day Light Saving that just occurred. You gain or lose an hour every year. Yet, you do not experience Jet Lag. Something else must be occurring.

Hypoxia Jet Lag Theory

If you have ever experienced higher altitude, you may have experienced symptoms similar to Jet Lag. But you knew you were at a higher altitude and knew that when you returned home the symptoms would disappear. Some reading this will claim they feel better when flying or vacationing at higher altitudes. That is indicative of having low blood pressure and the gas in the body expands increasing their blood pressure. I have several patients that go to mountain retreats or visit relatives at higher elevations reporting they feel better. Again it is always attributed to the meditation or relief from daily stressors and never the altitude changing their physiology.

If you experience Altitude Symptoms in Denver, you will experience the same symptoms flying.

Jet lag symptoms usually occur within a day or two of travel if you’ve traveled across at least two time zones. Symptoms are likely to be worse or last longer the more time zones that you’ve crossed. Said another way, the more time zone you cross, the longer you are sitting in a Hypobaric Chamber. Airline Cabins are pressurized to 8,000 feet. It usually takes about a day to recover for each time zone crossed.

Altitude Sickness

Altitude sickness —also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS), altitude illness, hypobaropathy, the altitude bends, or soroche —is a pathological effect of high altitude on humans, caused by acute exposure to low partial pressure of oxygen at high altitude. It commonly occurs above 8,000 feet (2,400 metres).

What causes Altitude Sickness?

Air is “thinner” at high altitudes. When you go too high too fast, your body cannot get as much oxygen as it needs. If you are hiking or vacationing at high altitudes, the symptoms may be worse if your body is slow to acclimate. It takes hours to get to the high altitude. However, if you are flying it takes minutes to arrive at 8,000 feet.

What are the Symptoms?

Mild- to moderate- instances of altitude sickness are very common among travelers to higher elevations: at 4,900 feet (Denver is 5280 ft.) and above, 75% of people will experience at least mild altitude sickness. Altitude sickness has a wide range of potential symptoms and has often been described as feeling like a hangover or the onset of the flu. Symptoms can appear as early as two hours after arrival and can include:

  • A headache, which is usually throbbing. It gets worse during the night and when you wake up.
  • Not feeling like eating.
  • Feeling sick to your stomach. You may vomit.
  • Feeling weak and tired. In severe cases, you do not have the energy to eat, dress yourself, or do anything.
  • Waking up during the night and not sleeping well.
  • Feeling dizzy.

Your symptoms may be mild to severe. They may not start until a day after you have been at a high altitude. Many people say altitude sickness feels like having a hangover.

Altitude sickness can affect your lungs and brain. When this happens, symptoms include being confused, not being able to walk straight (ataxia), feeling faint, and having blue or gray lips or fingernails.

Airline Cabin Air Pressure

Although aircraft cabins are pressurized, cabin air pressure at cruising altitude is not at the air pressure you took off at or at your destinations. At typical cruising altitudes in the range 33,000 – 40,000 feet (11,000–12,200 m), air pressure in the cabin is equivalent to the outside air pressure at 6000–8000 feet (1800–2400 m) above sea level. As a consequence, less oxygen is taken up by the blood (hypoxia) and gases within the body expand. Have you ever noticed the need to pass gas occurring more often when flying? The effects of reduced cabin air pressure are usually well tolerated by healthy passengers.

Oxygen and Hypoxia

Cabin air contains ample oxygen for healthy passengers and crew. However, because cabin air pressure is relatively low, the amount of oxygen carried in the blood is reduced compared with that at sea level. Passengers with certain medical conditions, particularly heart and lung diseases and blood disorders such as anemia (in particular sickle-cell anemia), may not tolerate this reduced oxygen level (hypoxia) very well. Those with Insulin Resistance and/or Autoimmune conditions may also experience symptoms.

Gas Expansion

As the aircraft climbs in altitude after take-off, the decreasing cabin air pressure causes gases to expand. Similarly, as the aircraft descends in altitude before landing, the increasing pressure in the cabin causes gases to contract. These changes may have effects where air is trapped in the body. Have you ever boarded the plane with a plastic water bottle, drinking it while in flight? Did you notice how the bottle collapses as the plane descends. It was the air pressure that did this.

Passengers often experience a “popping” sensation in the ears caused by air escaping from the middle ear and the sinuses during the aircraft’s climb. This is not usually considered a problem. As the aircraft descends in altitude prior to landing, air must flow back into the middle ear and sinuses in order to equalize pressure. If this does not happen, the ears or sinuses may feel as if they are blocked and pain can result. Swallowing, chewing or yawning (“clearing the ears”) will usually relieve any discomfort. As soon as it is recognized that the problem will not resolve itself using these methods, a short forceful expiration against a pinched nose and closed mouth (Valsalva manoeuvre) should be tried and will usually help. For infants, feeding or giving a pacifier (dummy) to stimulate swallowing may reduce the symptoms.

Individuals with ear, nose and sinus infections should avoid flying because pain and injury may result from the inability to equalize pressure differences. If travel cannot be avoided, the use of decongestant nasal drops shortly before the flight and again before descent may be helpful.

As the aircraft climbs, expansion of gas in the abdomen can cause discomfort, although this is usually mild. This is why people feel the urge to pass gas when flying.


Though extremely common, it’s impossible to predict how Altitude Sickness Jet Lag will affect you. Your fitness level, age and sex have nothing to do with whether you’ll be more or less susceptible, and your best indicator might be whether you’ve experienced it on previous high elevation trips or air trips. However, there are some behaviors that may set the stage for the onset of symptoms, and avoiding them might ease your transition to high altitude.

1 Hydrate

This is the best way to help your body adjust to high altitude. Generally the low humidity at altitude keeps the air dry, so you should drink twice as much water as you would at home.

Also keep in mind that you want to add water to your body, not deplete it. At least initially, avoid caffeine and alcohol.

2 Replenish

Foods rich in potassium are great for acclimating. Some good staples to eat include broccoli, bananas, avocado, cantaloupe, celery, greens, bran, chocolate, granola, dates, dried fruit, potatoes and tomatoes.

3 Easy does it

You’ve been planning an epic travel vacation for months. But this is the first time you’ve logged any time above 6,000 feet. You will feel the effects of after landing. Movement will help get oxygen back into your system.

4 Supplements

  • Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is part of the B-complex of vitamins that are integral to many of the body’s functions. One of the most important roles of vitamin B12 is in the production of red blood cells. These cells carry oxygen throughout the body with the help of a protein called hemoglobin. A lack of vitamin B12 can cause a decrease in the amount of red blood cells and hemoglobin carrying oxygen in the blood stream.

Order Vitamin B12 (K34)Use HCP code: drdave


  • Chlorophyll

Chlorophyll attaches to toxins and heavy metals and removes them from your body. It also increases your blood's oxygen-carrying capacity by stimulating red blood cell production. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of chlorophyll contribute to its cleansing effects.

Chlorophyll is the molecule in plants that traps sunlight and converts it into energy. The chlorophyll molecule is also identical in structure to hemoglobin, the molecule that carries oxygen in your bloodstream, with one exception. Where hemoglobin attaches to oxygen, the chlorophyll molecule contains an atom of magnesium. The structural similarity lends itself to functional benefits, as well. Chlorophyll is thought to assist in various aspects related to cleansing and maintaining healthy blood.

All of the health benefits of liquid chlorophyll are easy to get on a daily basis. The simple way? Eat your greens and drink your greens.

I know we are always going on about the importance of greens in your diet, but this is one of the main reasons why – it ensures you’re getting plenty of chlorophyll!

Here are a few sources:

Green Drinks: Juiced yourself or made from powdered greens – green drinks are a dense source of alkalizing, chlorophyll rich greens that are easily assimilated by the body.

Chlorophyll: This is one of my top, top supplements – a concentrated, dense, tasteless (almost) source of liquid chlorophyll that you can add to any drink (water, juice, smoothie) to give your body a constant source of chlorophyll. It is amazing the difference it makes to your energy. Brilliant. And unlike most liquid chlorophyll supplements it isn’t refined and highly processed (killing the goodness) or packed full of sweeteners.

Green Food in General: Eat loads of greens! Think of great big salads and veggies – spinach, lettuce, broccoli, Asian greens, green capsicum, asparagus, peas, beans, kale etc.

Any food that is green is that way because it contains chlorophyll – so eat up!

Have You Been Indoctrinated To Avoid Salt

While most people have been indoctrinated it’s best to steer clear of putting salt in food or high-salt foods like movie-theater popcorn and French fries. If you are avoiding Sodium in your food, you may need to rethink the whole salt avoidance doctrine.

Americans love sodium chloride, also known as common table salt. According to the Medical community, they consume far too much. Their theory is unfortunately for savory-food fans, a diet high in sodium can wreak havoc on your health. According to the Harvard School of Public Health excess sodium increases your blood volume and with it, the strain on your heart and blood vessels. Where sodium goes, fluid flows.

In all of these studies were they using “Salt” or “Salt with all the bad additives”.

Bad Ingredients In Salt

In the medicals studies reporting the bad aspects of “Salt”, or “Sodium”, which form were they using. Were they using pure Sodium Chloride, or were they using the store bought Salt with additives or Iodized Salt? Were they taking into account for the Sodium in the drug they were using? In all likelihood, they were using the additive ladened “Salt”.

Now, the bad news. If any of the following additives are in your table salt, relegate it to the laundry room and use it as an abrasive sink scrub instead.

Yellow prussiate of soda:

Yellow Prussiate of Soda is Sodium ferrocyanide in its hydrous form (which means Sodium ferrocyanide with water).

Sodium ferrocyanide is a chemical additive known as E 535. It is added to road and food grade salt as an anticaking agent. When combined with iron, it converts to a deep blue pigment called Prussian blue. In photography, it is used for bleaching, toning, and fixing. It is used as a stabilizer for the coating on welding rods. In the petroleum industry, it is used for removal of mercaptans. Sodium ferrocyanide is produced industrially from hydrogen cyanide.

So why it it in table salt? As it turns out yellow prussiate of soda kills two birds with one stone. Despite its name, it isn’t there to turn grey salt into yellow salt. Instead, it acts as a bleaching agent, turning grey salt into the white salt that westerners have come to associate with purity. Secondly, this additive also doubles as a flow agent. Without it, presumably your saltshaker would get clogged up.

Sodium silico-aluminate:  Also known as E554, this additive is used to prevent caking and clumping. Remember, aluminum is NOT an essential mineral and in fact, the vast majority of chemists will agree it is a toxic metal for the human body. Less of a health concern is silica, a major element in sand and glass and possibly an essential mineral (silicon). Verdict? I’d avoid E554.

So how much sodium can you safely eat each day? First let us ask what is Sodium? Is there a difference between Sodium and Salt? What about Sodium Chloride?

Here is where the confusion begins. Salt, Sodium, and Sodium Chloride are all used synonymously. However, they are not the same.

What is Salt?

Salt is a doubles act. A double act, for an example, a comedy duo, is a comic pairing in which humor is derived from the uneven relationship between two partners, with drastically different personality or behavior. The straight man sets up jokes and then “feeds” them to his partner achieving the desired result – comedy.

Often one of the members of the duo – the straight man, – is portrayed as reasonable and serious, while the other one – the funny man, – is portrayed as funny, less educated or less intelligent, silly, or unorthodox. They are recognized as a pair, i.e. Penn & Teller, Aykroyd & Belushi, Martin & Lewis, etc. One goes with the other. When it involves Salt the recognized pairs are Sodium-Chloride, Potassium Iodide, Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Nitrite, Lithium Sulfate, etc. There are so many more with 50% of prescription drugs being salt.

In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. Salts are composed of related numbers of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge).

In comedy duos, the audience rarely identifies primarily with one character. It would be like referring to the duo as Teller – who does not speak; Belushi – who died of drug overdose; and Martin – who was always seen with a drink in his hand. It puts them totally out of the true nature of how they functioned as a duo.

When they split up, their careers as a result of the split are different. When Salt splits the positively charged Cation and the Negatively charged Anion do different functions in the body. Sodium (cation) is like the athlete that moves from team to team winning championships. When it is paired with a good team. Sometimes the other member of the pair does good things. Sometimes they do bad.

Why Would The Medical Community Tell Us To Avoid Sodium

Sodium is a necessary element for good health. 50% of the drugs they prescribe are “Salt”, some made with “Sodium”.

Drug Names and Their Pharmaceutical Salts – Clearing Up the Confusion

You may given the pharmacist a prescription for a medication. Not realizing you have been prescribed a “Salt” from the very same Doctor that is telling their patients to avoid “Salt” and “Sodium”.

For those with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) or Diabetes, they are prescribed a Salt Drug called metformin hydrochloride, but when you receive your bottle and look it up on the internet, all you see is “metformin”, not “metformin hydrochloride.” Why is this? Is it the same drug your doctor ordered? What is “hydrochloride”?

Why Do Some Drugs Exist As A Salt?

The drug form is not always optimal for dissolution or absorption into your body. A drug needs to be absorbed to have a therapeutic effect, and it usually needs to be water-soluble. Therefore, drugs are often chemically made into a salt forms to enhance how the drug dissolves and to boost its absorption into your bloodstream. Over 50% of all drug molecules used in medicine exist as salts, most frequently as hydrochloride, sodium, or sulfate salts.

The Top 15 Most Common Drug Salts

  • Hydrochloride (15.5%)
  • Sodium (9%)
  • Sulfate (4%)
  • Acetate (2.5%)
  • Phosphate/diphosphate (1.9%)
  • Chloride (1.8%)
  • Potassium (1.6%)
  • Maleate (1.4%)
  • Calcium (1.3%)
  • Citrate (1.2%)
  • Mesylate (1%)
  • Nitrate (0.9%)
  • Tartrate (0.8%)
  • Aluminum (0.7%)
  • Gluconate (0.7%)

But why are Doctors telling their patients to avoid “Salt” and “Sodium”, when 50% of drugs are Salts. The answer is simple. It depends what is attached to the Sodium. What other additives, i.e. anti-caking ingredients. An anticaking agent in salt is denoted in the ingredients, for example, as “anti-caking agent (554)”, which is sodium aluminosilicate, a man-made product. This product is present in many commercial table salts as well as dried milk, egg mixes, sugar products, flours and spices.

You May Explode If You Consume Sodium?

A possible reason that the Medical community recommends avoiding Sodium is that you may explode. What else could it be? In the Medical community, they identify primarily with one character – Sodium. Sodium is not stable without its “funny man”. Sodium is explosive in nature, especially when exposed to water.

There’s nothing like an explosion to get your attention. Remember when your high school teacher dropped a lump of sodium into water? Bang! Lesson learnt: “sodium” is highly reactive. The human body is 50% water. Therefore, if you consume “Sodium” you may spontaneously combust? Really? All Doctors have to attend college and are required to take multiple chemistry and physics classes. They had to have high GPAs to get into Medical school. Did they forget what was taught in Chemistry class?

Chemistry teachers love to use the sodium-water reaction when they are teaching students about the periodic table. Elements are grouped according to their properties. In the far right hand column of the table are the noble gases, stable and unreactive thanks to their full complement of orbiting electrons. Sodium on the opposite side of the table has the opposite properties. Its single outer electron makes the metal highly reactive and ready to combine with others at the first opportunity – such as the moment the Sodium hits water.

Sodium’s explosion in water has long been a mystery. Thanks to high speed super-fast video footage, scientists can now understand better sodium’s energetic reaction with water.

Spikes of metal could be seen shooting very rapidly out into the water, within less than half a millisecond of the two surfaces coming into contact. And there was a flash of a bluish purple color at about the same time.” ~ By Jonathan WebbScience reporter, BBC News (article –

What Is Sodium?

The Sodium atom Na+is not a stable atom. The Na+ion will spontaneously attract an electron, but the Na+ atom will not spontaneously emit an electron.

Doctors may reasonably argue that they were thinking of real chemical contexts, where the cation is commonly found as part of real chemical substances (sodium drugs, sodium chloride, sodium preservatives, etc). However, the Na+atom alone would be highly unstable. Sodium can not exist alone. It must be paired with a negatively charged element to be stable.

Health Benefits of Sodium

Sodium is an extremely important electrolyte and an essential ion present in the extracellular fluid (ECF). One of the health benefits of sodium is the pivotal role it plays in enzyme operations and muscle contraction. It is very important for osmoregulation and fluid maintenance within the human body. Other health benefits include improved heart performance, nervous system, and glucose absorption.

What is the Importance of Sodium?

Sodium is needed for blood regulation and its absence can cause serious impairment of bodily functions. It is a versatile element and occurs in more than eighty different forms. As an electrolyte, it regulates the bodily fluids and transmits electrical impulses in the body. Unlike other vitamins and minerals, heat has no effect on it. Therefore, it can be used in different ways and preparations without losing its effects. Also, it is an important constituent of nerves and helps to regulate muscle contractions.

Salt Controls Bacterial Growth

Salt controls bacterial growth in fermented foods. The bacterial growth is regulated by a sodium to water ratio. Using a salt with minerals and or additive will dilute the sodium ratio. The minerals already exist in the food being fermented. This applies to those using the popular Himalayan Salt. The mineral that give the pink color to the Himalayan salt dilutes sodium concentration. Plus, certain bacteria use the minerals to outcompete other bacteria creating an imbalance in the microbiome.

The Roles Salt Plays in Fermenting

There are several reasons why salt is preferable over other things when it comes to fermenting foods. Here are a few roles that salt plays in the process:

  • Preservation—Salt inhibits the growth of undesirable bacteria and molds while allowing the growth of Lactobacilli.
  • Dehydration—Salt pulls the moisture from the food product that bacteria require for growth.
  • Promote texture—Salt hardens the pectin in vegetables, which results in a crunchy, more flavorful product.

Sodium Chloride

Chloride is the lesser-known half of a better known as part of the double-act “sodium-chloride” otherwise known as table salt. Collectively referred to as “Sodium”.

It’s not a mineral you’ll read much about in the health magazines but it is still important to your health nonetheless.

Chloride is a type of electrolyte, which works in conjunction with sodium and potassium. This particular electrolyte is found mainly in the body fluids surrounding cells. It works with the other members of the electrolyte family to help control fluids within the body and maintain electrolyte balance.

Because our bodies prefer to be pH neutral, chloride helps maintain this by reducing acid levels. Chlorides act as neutralizing agents and their work helps to bring the acid/alkaline level back into balance.

Within the stomach, you’ll find that chloride appears in the form of hydrochloric acid. In order for your body to effectively digest food, hydrochloric acid helps break the food down and stimulates the release of pancreatic enzymes and bile, so that it can be absorbed by the small intestines.

In the liver, chloride may also help in the process of removing waste.

Sources of Chloride

You’ll find chloride in many processed foods such as ketchup, French fries, canned meats, canned vegetables and olives. Chloride is plentiful in processed foods because of the high levels of preservatives needed to keep these foods fresh.

Here in the USA there’s been a lot of bad press about salt. There’s been lot of TV ad campaigns encouraging us to reduce our salt intake because most people consume too much. However our bodies do require chloride and it’s suggested we take 750 mg/day.

Chloride Deficiencies

Because of the bad press salt has many people don’t realize that salt is required by our bodies, so instead of reducing salt intake they cut it out all together.

Low blood pressure and a general feeling of weakness are two symptoms of a chloride deficiency. When chloride levels drop the body usually experiences a simultaneous loss of potassium via the urine. A condition known as alkalosis can develop if acid levels in the body drop too low. This is a dangerous condition that causes the blood pH to become elevated. When pH is elevated and the body becomes more alkaline, Red Blood Cells cannot release oxygen.

If your body is not getting enough chloride and potassium you develop hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and its symptoms cause the affected person to lose the ability to control muscle function. This in turn causes problems with breathing and swallowing, and if not addressed, may lead to death.  Learning about health is important, especially if you are wanting to build muscle quickly.

If you have suffered serious bouts of diarrhea, vomiting, excessive use of diuretics, or excessive fluid loss due to sweat then this can create a deficiency of the mineral. Many athletes take supplements of salt because drinking more water that is lost in sweat can dilute the salt within the body. Also when you exercise salt is excreted through your sweat so it’s important that it’s replaced.

Multiple Organ Dysfunction from Bad Root Canal: Case Review

A 40ish year old woman came to the office with unresolved fatigue, gastro, thyroid symptoms,  despite following a Gluten Free diet for nine years. Having done mostly GAPS/AIP/SCD eating protocols in that time frame.  She recently was food tested and determined that IgGs were positive for Casein, chocolate, coffee, corn, egg, peanut, tomato, wheat, and yeast. Limiting these foods has allowed some weight loss to begin, but other symptoms are still present.

She was being treated for the usual Social Media Memes of SIBO, Adrenal Fatigue with probiotics and  supplements made with whole food without any improvement. Analysis of the Genova 2200 Gastrointestinal Stool Profile was presented as everything was okay. She was referred to my office for a different opinion.


This was the assessment after triage of the labs she brought to the office. There was a disagreement as to whether the mouth was a problem that being it was not what she was there for. She wanted to know why she felt so bad and nothing seemed to have any affect. Turns out it started in the mouth and was all down-stream from there.

Would you like to see how this case is broken down? What are the thought processes as different components of her case are broken down? Let’s get started.

Her Cycle of Dysfunction

  • Bad Root Canal contributing to Oral Infection
  • Food Sensitivities | Allergies
  • Bacteria Cleave Immunoglobulins
  • Anemia of Chronic Inflammation
  • Sulphate Reducing Bacteria
  • Short Bowel Syndrome
  • Oral Bacteria Contribute to Endometriosis
  • Unexplained Underperformance Syndrome

Hashimoto’s Autoimmune Thyroiditis

Hashimoto’s disease is an autoimmune disorder in which your immune system inappropriately attacks your thyroid gland, causing damage to your thyroid cells and upsetting the balance of chemical reactions in your body. The inflammation caused by Hashimoto’s disease, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, often leads to an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism). Hashimoto’s disease is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States.

When You Are Diagnosed With Hashimoto’s

By the time you are diagnosed with Hashimoto’s, Hypothyroidism involving just the thyroid is no longer the primary factor. Any support you give for just the thyroid will provoke further attacks. So stop it!!! Look for the other non-thyroid factors and which of the other five patterns of low thyroid  are involved. You will respond much quicker in doing this.

Along the way, however, there can be periods where the thyroid sputters back to life, even causing temporary hyperthyroidism, then a return to hypothyroidism. This cycling back and forth between hypothyroidism symptoms and hyperthyroidism is characteristic of Hashimoto’s disease as the other Non-Thyroid Factors and/or conditions that cause the five patterns of hypothyroidism and/or 22 factors of low thyroid function caused by the neuroendocrine transmitters of the NEI Supersystem  flare up and/or calm down. Again, the thyroid is NOT directly involved.

So, for example, periods of anxiety/insomnia/diarrhea/weight loss may be followed by periods of depression/fatigue/constipation/weight gain. Did I mention the 22 different factors that can cause low thyroid function that are due to neuroendocrine transmitters of the NEI Supersystem? Again, the thyroid is NOT directly involved.

Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Treatment Priorities

  1. Calm and Quite the immune system
  2. Quench inflammation in the body
  3. Reset the immune system
  4. Support the elimination of the other NON-Thyroid factors that provoke immune responses towards the thyroid. (Not mentioned by Kharrazian or Wentz)
  5. Address the Neuroendocrine transmitters imbalance that can cause 22 patterns of low thyroid function. (Kharrazian D. Why Do I Still Have Thyroid Symptoms. Chapter Ten, page 179; Not mention by Izabella Wentz)
  6. Support the underlying cause of whichever of the six patterns of low thyroid is present in the  body.  (Kharrazian D. Why Do I Still Have Thyroid Symptoms. Chapter Four, page 67; Not mention by Izabella Wentz)

The treatment of Hashimoto’s should not focus on the thyroid until the underlying factors provoking the immune attack are resolved. Any support that enhances the thyroid function will provoke aggressive attacks on the thyroid gland itself. Most of the factors involved in low thyroid function do not involve the thyroid gland.

It is like having a coworker that prevents you from doing your job and you have the job that gets all the attention and blame.

Hashimoto’s typically involves a slow but steady destruction of the gland  by the immune system and other NON-THYROID Factors that eventually results in the thyroid’s inability to produce sufficient thyroid hormone — the condition known as hypothyroidism. There are other NON-Thyroid factors that provoke immune responses towards the thyroid that take priority over supporting normal thyroid function.  There are six patterns of hypothyroidism (Low Thyroid) – five of which do not involve the thyroid that should be addressed.

Forbidden Cytokines Make Antibody Tests Confusing

Cytokine secretion by helper T cells is particularly important in autoimmunity because chronic autoimmune diseases, such as Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis are predominantly caused by Th1 cells. Th2 cells can antagonize Th1 functions and in numerous autoimmune conditions prevent autoimmune diseases from getting established.

After autoimmune conditions, such as those mentioned above, become established. Th2 is not only an inefficient suppressors of Th1, but can provoke and promote the onset of autoimmune conditions. Furthermore, neuropeptides (NPs): (somatostatin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, neuropeptide Y, and substance P), drive distinct Th1 and Th2 populations to a “forbidden” cytokine secretion: secretion of Th2 cytokines from a Th1 T cell line and vice versa. Such a phenomenon cannot be induced by classical antigenic/antibody stimulation.

Some of the NPs are produced by microbes as part of their defense strategy. Thus, focusing on restoring normal thyroid function to an autoimmune thyroid is futile.

Hypothalamic Sampling Hormones Requires Blood Flow

Sampling of hormones (including the sex hormones) by the hypothalamus requires consistent blood flow. In the body, blood carries hormones released by endocrine glands and carries them to body parts that need them.

In parasympathetic withdrawal, diagnosis is usually considered adrenal fatigue. The volume of blood shifts from the muscles and brain to the central abdominal compartment. The blood flow to the brain is not stopped when this occurs. The flow is reduced and Poiseuille’s Laws come into play.

The circulatory system provides many examples of Poiseuille’s law in action—with blood flow regulated by changes in vessel size and blood pressure. Blood vessels are not rigid but elastic. Adjustments to blood flow are primarily made by varying the size of the vessels, since the resistance is so sensitive to the radius. This is done by the Abdominal Brain through the release of NeuroEndocrine transmitters, i.e. Serotonin – sero = “blood”, tonin = “pertaining to”.

A 19% decrease in flow is caused by a 5% decrease in radius of the blood vessels. The body may compensate by increasing blood pressure by 19%, but this presents hazards to the heart and any vessel that has weakened walls.

This decrease in radius is surprisingly small for this situation. To restore the blood flow in spite of this buildup would require an increase in the pressure difference of a factor of two, with subsequent strain on the heart.


In severe and/or chronic illness, profound changes occur in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Ischemia and inflammation disrupt the porous Blood-Brain-Barrier surrounding the hypothalamus. The observed decrease in serum concentration of both hormones and neuroendocrine transmitter (neurotransmitters in the blood) are not compatible with a negative feedback loop.

Ischemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive, healthy and functioning properly). Ischemia is generally caused by problems with blood vessels, with resultant damage to or dysfunction of tissue or organs. It also means local anemia in a given part of a body sometimes resulting from congestion (such as vasoconstriction, red blood cell aggregation due to insulin resistance/diabetes). Ischemia comprises not only insufficiency of oxygen, but also reduced availability of nutrients and inadequate removal of metabolic wastes.

Hepatic Portal Hypertension

Parasympathetic Withdrawal (vasodilation) with blood pooling in the Abdominal Compartment makes the Movement Compartment and Brain/Spinal Cord Ischemic. At the periphery of the ischemic region, the so-called ischemic penumbra, neuronal damage throughout the body develops more slowly because blood flow arising from adjacent vascular territories (collateral flow) keeps blood perfusion above the threshold for immediate cell death. In the ischemic core, the major mechanism of cell death is energy failure caused by Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation (O2/GD). The hypothalamus and midbrain are most vulnerable to ischemia.

Neuron Vulnerability

Neurons in the most vulnerable areas cease to respond or show only faint responses and develop irreversible ischemic or post-ischemic damage. The hypothalamus responds to ischemic insults rigorously without having irreversible ischemic or post-ischemic damage.

The thalamus-hypothalamus interface represents a discrete boundary where neuronal vulnerability to ischemia is high in thalamus (like more rostral neocortex, striatum, hippocampus). In contrast hypothalamic neurons are comparatively resistant, generating weaker and recoverable anoxic depolarization similar to brainstem neurons, possibly the result of a Na/K pump that better functions during ischemia.

There is a well recognized but poorly understood caudal-to rostral increase in the brain`s vulnerability to neuronal injury caused by metabolic stress (insulin resistance).

Several brain regions, including the caudate, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, are vulnerable to hypoxic–ischemic brain injury. During O2/GD, hypothalamic neurons gradually depolarized during ischemic exposure. The O2/glucose deprivation (O2/GD) response induces failure of the Na+/K+ pump. The recovery is slow with chronic ischemic penumbrance

Without oxygen and glucose, neurons cannot generate the ATP needed to fuel the ionic pumps that maintain the ionic gradient across the neuronal membrane, mainly the Na+−K+ ATPase.

In the ischemic penumbra, the flow reduction is not sufficient to cause energy failure, and neurons remain viable for a prolonged period of time after the insult, but the neurons are stressed and critically vulnerable to pathogenic events that may tip their fragile metabolic balance. Excessive extracellular accumulation of glutamate is a major factor contributing to production of cytotoxic nitric oxide, free radicals and arachidonic acid metabolites. These events lead to necrosis or programmed cell death depending on the intensity of the insult and the metabolic state of the neurons. Injured and dying cells have a key role in post-ischemic inflammation because they release danger signals that activate the immune system.

Neurons that demonstrate particular vulnerability to ischemic challenges have been termed “selectively vulnerable neurons”. Of the entire forebrain, the neurons of the hippocampus are the most vulnerable.

Summary: Parasympathetic Dominance causes Ischemia to the Hippocampus, Hypothalamus, and Pituitary producing alterations in the HPA, HPT, HPD and HPG axis.

Is Your Diagnosis Being Driven By Internet Algorithms?

Is your diagnosis being driven by an Internet Algorithm bought and paid for by a Professional or Social Media Influencer? Is this Internet Algorithm catching your inescapably into a Click Funnel, conveniently linked to a sale page for a “Good-For-You” supplement. I have one question. Do you feel like you are swimming in a riptide when it come to your health?

There is a tendency at this time for Doctors and Patients alike, to jump to worst case scenarios. Especially, when the underlying factors are overlooked and ignored to create a self-fulfilling prophecy, which maintains supplement sales. However, there are some who find the benefits of a click funnel fulfilling when it comes to the growth of their business, you may see this among small business owners, who use something similar to Salesforce as a tool to market their business and interact with consumers.

Too many believe in their diagnosis. Too many believe in their support group. There is safety in numbers. How can this many in the Support Group possibly be wrong? They are unknowingly being swept into Ad Funnels bought and paid for by Professional and Social Media Influencers.

Have you ever written something in an email or text or maybe searched for something online? Only to see your web browser inundated with advertisements for that product. Do you think that is only happening for consumer products? Professional and Social Media Influencers are paying to put their ads and websites on your electronic devices screens. The same is happening for health related topics. After they link your searches together with your friends on Social Media, they have you locked in to their funnel.

Google and Facebook algorithms are funneling Doctors and people alike into diagnosis du jours and links for purchasing supplements. Professional and Social Media Influencers are buying ad-words on Google and Facebook to sweep people into their funnels. More like whirlpools or riptides that people can’t escape from. Leaving them drowning in erroneous treatment protocols.

Google and Social Media Ad Funnels make it darn near impossible to find any information to the contrary. You will have to consciously “Red Team” (on the contrary, the opposite is true) the information you are finding. You may have to go click through ten to twelve search engine pages before finding and information that has not been “copy and pasted” from some influencers website.

Most Doctors Follow the Personality. Not the Information.

There are howles and gnashing of teeth with that quote. They follow the information published by the Profesional Influencer Personalities. They never actually checkout the information. Since the 1990s, critical thinking has not been taught. Instead, Doctors are taught the answers to their National Board tests. Essentially, puking up an answer based on what they have been told to answer. They don’t feel qualified to question the Professional Influencer. Much less tell the Empereur, they have no clothes.

Google / Social Media Algorithm Trap Snares Doctors As Well

When Doctors fall into the Google / Social Media Algorithm trap, they will go from being advocates for a supplement, recommending the supplement for all their patients; to asking their Social Media Group, what brand of supplement others use, when they are not seeing the results claimed by the Supplement Companies or Professional and Social Media Influencers. Because, obviously it isjust the brand they are using that is the problem. Never recognising that the Professional or Social Media Influencer recommending the supplement has a financial interest in the recommendation.

The Doctors never take a step back and look at the information supporting the product. I take a different attitude towards supplements. If there are consistently poor or nonexistent beneficial results. I stop recommending it. I stop wasting the patient’s resources. Even with all the pressure patients put on me. Too many patients assume I am not aware of a particular wonder supplement. When in actuality, I wonder why anyone would recommend it.

Fives Stages of Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

Hashimoto’s is a progressive autoimmune condition and the Five stage of Hashimoto’s have been identified.

Stage 1

A person has the immune system imbalance that predisposes them to development of Autoimmune conditions, one of which is Hashimoto’s. For all intents and purposes they do not have thyroid disease or an autoimmune disease. Their thyroid function is normal and there is no attack on the thyroid.

  • Women are more at risk for autoimmune conditions due the monthly fluctuations of their hormones.
  • Women with severe morning sickness have an over active Th17 immune response.


Women with “hip pain”, “sciatica” or “loose ligaments” during the last trimester have an overactive Th17 immune response causing bone marrow edema in the hip bones causing the aforementioned painful conditions. Women put on bed rest during the last trimester have an overactive Th17 immune response. Women that feel better during pregnancy are using their baby’s endocrine glands to support their NEI Supersystem deficiencies. The baby is born with over-worked, underdeveloped endocrine glands that will not be able to support them during adult life. Immune / inflammatory and hormone messengers cross the placenta, which the baby’s immune and endocrine system responds to. The baby is born with an overactive immune system and possible “forbidden” Cytokines are actively disrupting the child’s immune responses. These are the children born with allergic responses or incessant crying.

Stage 2

Oral Bacteria Translocating to Thyroid

Other Non-thyroid Factors begin provoking immune responses towards the thyroid gland. Bacteria can translocate from the mouth to the thyroid. Lectin can damage TSH receptors. Damage occurs to the thyroid gland. The immune system moves into to clear the damaged tissue. Because the oral infection is never addressed and eating a diet of non-seasonal fresh fruit and vegetables is considered healthy. The Non-thyroid factors continue to damage the thyroid with the help of the immune cells. A person will have symptoms, but their TSH, T3 and T4 may be normal. But thyroid medication will be demanded and prescribed anyway. At this point the thyroid antibody test may reveal thyroid antibodies are now being produced.

Order the MicrobeLink DX Kit

Stage 4

Ignoring the Non-Thyroid Patterns while taking Thyroid Drugs

Thyroid gland failure occurs when the thyroid gland loses its ability to make thyroid hormones. The thyroid hormone drugs are recognized during hypothalamus sampling. As far as the hypothalamus which controls the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis is concerned, you have all the thyroid hormones you need and there is no need to signal the thyroid gland by producing Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH). Thus, it is expected that TSH is low while taking thyroid medications. This makes it a failure to stimulate the production of thyroid hormone problem. If you do not use it, you lose it. Your body sees no need to support unused thyroid tissue.

Too much of the thyroid gland is not maintained when the Non-Thyroid Patterns causing hypothyroidism symptoms are not addressed.

Thyroid Drugs and Supplements

TSH will be low as there is no signals from the Hypothalamus for its production. T3 and T4 numbers will be ambiguous and confusing. Support will continue for the restoration of thyroid gland with confusing results.

Stage 5

Multiple Autoimmune Conditions

You are allowed to have multiple autoimmune conditions simultaneously. It is not a matter of which came first. Most Doctors will only offer to test for autoimmune conditions based on their specialty. This leads to multiple Doctor visits, multiple diagnoses, and multiple treatment plans putting you on a slippery slope with a downward spiral.

Until the immune system is brought under control, thyroid supplements and drugs are futile. You do not worry about what color you are painting the kitchen when the house is on fire.

What is Th17?

The purpose of Th17 cells is to clear pathogens, which are not efficiently handled by TH1 and TH2 type of immunity. The induction of Th17 responses must go through three distinct steps: Induction, amplification and stabilization. The stability of Th17 population is only relevant if it is protective against a given pathogen-invader or other kind of insult. If Th17 cells loose their stability they become highly proinflammatory and promote the destruction of your body’s tissues as occurs in autoimmune conditions. In essence, your immune system chooses to sacrifice body tissues by destroying in order to preserve the rest of your body.

By promoting inflammation and attracting neutrophils, TH17-cells may help to remove microbes from the body. However, by triggering an excessive inflammatory response, TH17-cells can contribute to such inflammatory diseases as Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, Crohn’s disease, Ulcerative Colitis, Psoriasis and many other Autoimmune conditions.

TH17 cells have recently emerged as a third independent type T cells which may play an essential role in protection against certain disease causing microbes.  IL-17 plays an important and unique role protection against specific pathogens. The production of IL-17 and the recruitment of neutrophils is important in protection against gram-negative bacteria and fungal infections. Th17 are highly pro-inflammatory and that Th17 cells with specificity for self-antigens lead to severe autoimmunity.

Game Changing Autoimmune Support to Calm and Quiet the TH17 response.

Forbidden Cytokines and Autoimmunity

T-cells secrete various cytokines through which they affect a broad spectrum of normal and pathological immune processes. Cytokine secretion by helper T cells is particularly important in autoimmunity[i] because chronic autoimmune diseases, such as Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, Multiple Sclerosis, Type 1 Diabetes, and Rheumatoid Arthritis are predominantly caused by Th1 cells. Th2 cells can antagonize Th1 functions[ii] and in numerous autoimmune conditions prevent and/or cure autoimmune diseases.

However, recent studies found exceptions to this rule, suggesting that the behavior of a given T cell population may be unpredictable in its cytokine secretion profile. For example, (i) Th2-type T cells can be not only inefficient suppressors of autoimmune conditions induced by Th1 cells,[iii] but can cause Autoimmune conditions;[iv] thus Th1 and Th2 cells can both promote autoimmune conditions; (ii) Th0-type T cells (producing both Th1 and Th2 cytokines) can stimulate autoimmune conditions and are able to instigate Autoimmune conditions;[v] and (iii) Th2-type T cells can induce pancreatitis and diabetes in immune-compromised nonobese individuals with blood sugar problems.[vi]

The cytokine secretion of the same T cell population is different in the lymph nodes (producing both Th1 and Th2 cytokines) than in the central nervous system (CNS) environment (producing only Th1 cytokines). This observation suggests that within the CNS, specific factors (mainly IL-12 producing microglia acting as APCs, not neurons) can modulate the cytokine secretion of Tcells, can select Th1/Th2 pathway, and can control effector CD4+ T cell cytokine profile in Autoimmune conditions.[vii]

Four neuropeptides (NPs): somatostatin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, neuropeptide Y, and substance P, in the absence of any additional factors, directly induce a increased secretion of cytokines [interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon-g, IL-4, and IL-10) from T cells. Furthermore, these NPs drive distinct Th1 and Th2 populations to a ‘‘FORBIDDEN’’ cytokine secretion[viii]: secretion of Th2 cytokines from a Th1 T cell line and vice versa. Such a phenomenon cannot be induced by classical antigenic stimulation.

The nervous system, through these NPs interacting with their specific T cell-expressed receptors, can lead to the secretion of both typical and atypical cytokines, leading to the breakdown of the commitment to a distinct Th phenotype, and a potentially altered function and destiny of T cells in vivo.

Nerve fibers that release NPs are widespread in the mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems, in certain endocrine tissues, and in all the primary and secondary lymphoid organs.[ix]

[i] Merrill, J. E. & Benveniste, E. N. (1996) Trends Neurosci. 19, 331–338.

[ii] Benveniste, E. N. (1995) in Human Cytokines: Their Role in Research and Therapy (Blackwell Scientific, Oxford), pp. 195–216.

[iii] Khoruts, A., Miller, S. D. & Jenkins, M. K. (1995) J. Immunol. 155, 5011–5017.

[iv] Lafaille, J. J., Keere, F. V., Hsu, A. L., Baron, J. L., Haas, W., Raine, C. S. & Tonegawa, S. (1997) J. Exp. Med. 186, 307–312.

[v] Krakowski, M. L. & Owens, T. (1997) Eur. J. Immunol. 27, 2840–2847.

[vi] Pakala, S. V., Kurrer, M. O. & Katz, J. D. (1997) J. Exp. Med. 186, 299–306.

[vii] Krakowski, M. L. & Owens, T. (1997) Eur. J. Immunol. 27, 2840–2847.

[viii] Mia Levite. Neuropeptides, by direct interaction with T cells, induce cytokine secretion and break the commitment to a distinct T helper phenotype (T helper cells 1 and 2). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 95, pp. 12544–12549, October 1998 Immunology

[ix] Weihe, E., Nohr, D., Michel, S., Muller, S., Zentel, H. J., Fink, T. & Krekel, J. (1991) Int. J. Neurosci. 59, 1–23.

Game Changing Autoimmune Support to Calm and Quiet the TH17 response.


Yeast/Fungi (ingested mold in this case) synthesize somatostatin using it as a defense mechanism to create their ideal environment. Normally, somatostatin is produce by the body in the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas and regions of the CNS. Classified as an inhibitory hormone, it has been shown to impede proinflammatory responses. Somatostatin secreted from non-neuronal cells along the digestive tract plays an important role as a mediator during mucosal inflammatory responses after physiological (induced by TNF-α) and pathophysiological (up-regulation of bacteria) stimulations. TH1, which predominates gastritis (gut inflammation), may be quelled through the increased levels of somatostatin. Through reduced inflammation, the yeast and other microbes are able to avoid attack by the TH1 immune system.

Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) used in probiotics, synthesizes an analogous peptide hormone precursor, pro a-factor, which is proteolytically processed by at least two separate proteases, the products of the KEXZ and STE13 genes, to generate the mature bioactive peptide somatostatin (SMS).[i],[ii],[iii],[iv],[v]

Expression in yeast of recombinant DNAs encoding hybrids between the proregion of a-factor and somatostatin results in proteolytic processing of the chimeric precursors and secretion of mature somatostatin.[vi]

[i] Green R, Schabern M, Shields D, Kramer R. Secretion of Somatostatin by Saccharomyces cereuisiae CORRECT PROCESSING OF AN a-FACTOR-SOMATOSTATIN HYBRID June 5, 1986 The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 261, 7558-7565.

[ii] Bourbonnais Y, Bolinn D, Shields D. Secretion of Somatostatin by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CORRECT PROTEOLYTIC PROCESSING OF PRO-a-FACTOR-SOMATOSTATIN HYBRIDS REQUIRES THE PRODUCTS OF THE KEX2 AND STE13 GENES’ Vol. 263, No. 30,Issue of October 25, pp. 15342-15347,1988

[iii] PRICE L, KAJKOWSKI E, HADCOCK J, OZENBERGER B, PAUSCH M. Functional Coupling of a Mammalian Somatostatin Receptor to the Yeast Pheromone Response Pathway MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY, Nov. 1995, p. 6188–6195 Vol. 15, No. 11

[iv] Keisuke Hara, Tomohiro Shigemori, Kouichi Kuroda and Mitsuyoshi Ueda. Membrane-displayed somatostatin activates somatostatin receptor subtype-2 heterologously produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hara et al. AMB Express 2012, 2:63

[v] Hara, Shigemori, Kuroda, Ueda (2012) Membrane-displayed somatostatin activates somatostatin receptor subtype-2 heterologously produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMB Express 2(1) 63

[vi]Bourbonnais Y, Bolin D, Shields D. Secrestion of Somatostating by saccharomyces cerevisiae, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 263, October 25, 1988: 15342 – 15347