Have You Been Indoctrinated To Avoid Salt

While most people have been indoctrinated it’s best to steer clear of putting salt in food or high-salt foods like movie-theater popcorn and French fries. If you are avoiding Sodium in your food, you may need to rethink the whole salt avoidance doctrine.

Americans love sodium chloride, also known as common table salt. According to the Medical community, they consume far too much. Their theory is unfortunately for savory-food fans, a diet high in sodium can wreak havoc on your health. According to the Harvard School of Public Health excess sodium increases your blood volume and with it, the strain on your heart and blood vessels. Where sodium goes, fluid flows.

In all of these studies were they using “Salt” or “Salt with all the bad additives”.

Bad Ingredients In Salt

In the medicals studies reporting the bad aspects of “Salt”, or “Sodium”, which form were they using. Were they using pure Sodium Chloride, or were they using the store bought Salt with additives or Iodized Salt? Were they taking into account for the Sodium in the drug they were using? In all likelihood, they were using the additive ladened “Salt”.

Now, the bad news. If any of the following additives are in your table salt, relegate it to the laundry room and use it as an abrasive sink scrub instead.

Yellow prussiate of soda:

Yellow Prussiate of Soda is Sodium ferrocyanide in its hydrous form (which means Sodium ferrocyanide with water).

Sodium ferrocyanide is a chemical additive known as E 535. It is added to road and food grade salt as an anticaking agent. When combined with iron, it converts to a deep blue pigment called Prussian blue. In photography, it is used for bleaching, toning, and fixing. It is used as a stabilizer for the coating on welding rods. In the petroleum industry, it is used for removal of mercaptans. Sodium ferrocyanide is produced industrially from hydrogen cyanide.

So why it it in table salt? As it turns out yellow prussiate of soda kills two birds with one stone. Despite its name, it isn’t there to turn grey salt into yellow salt. Instead, it acts as a bleaching agent, turning grey salt into the white salt that westerners have come to associate with purity. Secondly, this additive also doubles as a flow agent. Without it, presumably your saltshaker would get clogged up.

Sodium silico-aluminate:  Also known as E554, this additive is used to prevent caking and clumping. Remember, aluminum is NOT an essential mineral and in fact, the vast majority of chemists will agree it is a toxic metal for the human body. Less of a health concern is silica, a major element in sand and glass and possibly an essential mineral (silicon). Verdict? I’d avoid E554.

So how much sodium can you safely eat each day? First let us ask what is Sodium? Is there a difference between Sodium and Salt? What about Sodium Chloride?

Here is where the confusion begins. Salt, Sodium, and Sodium Chloride are all used synonymously. However, they are not the same.

What is Salt?

Salt is a doubles act. A double act, for an example, a comedy duo, is a comic pairing in which humor is derived from the uneven relationship between two partners, with drastically different personality or behavior. The straight man sets up jokes and then “feeds” them to his partner achieving the desired result – comedy.

Often one of the members of the duo – the straight man, – is portrayed as reasonable and serious, while the other one – the funny man, – is portrayed as funny, less educated or less intelligent, silly, or unorthodox. They are recognized as a pair, i.e. Penn & Teller, Aykroyd & Belushi, Martin & Lewis, etc. One goes with the other. When it involves Salt the recognized pairs are Sodium-Chloride, Potassium Iodide, Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Nitrite, Lithium Sulfate, etc. There are so many more with 50% of prescription drugs being salt.

In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. Salts are composed of related numbers of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge).

In comedy duos, the audience rarely identifies primarily with one character. It would be like referring to the duo as Teller – who does not speak; Belushi – who died of drug overdose; and Martin – who was always seen with a drink in his hand. It puts them totally out of the true nature of how they functioned as a duo.

When they split up, their careers as a result of the split are different. When Salt splits the positively charged Cation and the Negatively charged Anion do different functions in the body. Sodium (cation) is like the athlete that moves from team to team winning championships. When it is paired with a good team. Sometimes the other member of the pair does good things. Sometimes they do bad.

Why Would The Medical Community Tell Us To Avoid Sodium

Sodium is a necessary element for good health. 50% of the drugs they prescribe are “Salt”, some made with “Sodium”.

Drug Names and Their Pharmaceutical Salts – Clearing Up the Confusion

You may given the pharmacist a prescription for a medication. Not realizing you have been prescribed a “Salt” from the very same Doctor that is telling their patients to avoid “Salt” and “Sodium”.

For those with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) or Diabetes, they are prescribed a Salt Drug called metformin hydrochloride, but when you receive your bottle and look it up on the internet, all you see is “metformin”, not “metformin hydrochloride.” Why is this? Is it the same drug your doctor ordered? What is “hydrochloride”?

Why Do Some Drugs Exist As A Salt?

The drug form is not always optimal for dissolution or absorption into your body. A drug needs to be absorbed to have a therapeutic effect, and it usually needs to be water-soluble. Therefore, drugs are often chemically made into a salt forms to enhance how the drug dissolves and to boost its absorption into your bloodstream. Over 50% of all drug molecules used in medicine exist as salts, most frequently as hydrochloride, sodium, or sulfate salts.

The Top 15 Most Common Drug Salts

  • Hydrochloride (15.5%)
  • Sodium (9%)
  • Sulfate (4%)
  • Acetate (2.5%)
  • Phosphate/diphosphate (1.9%)
  • Chloride (1.8%)
  • Potassium (1.6%)
  • Maleate (1.4%)
  • Calcium (1.3%)
  • Citrate (1.2%)
  • Mesylate (1%)
  • Nitrate (0.9%)
  • Tartrate (0.8%)
  • Aluminum (0.7%)
  • Gluconate (0.7%)

But why are Doctors telling their patients to avoid “Salt” and “Sodium”, when 50% of drugs are Salts. The answer is simple. It depends what is attached to the Sodium. What other additives, i.e. anti-caking ingredients. An anticaking agent in salt is denoted in the ingredients, for example, as “anti-caking agent (554)”, which is sodium aluminosilicate, a man-made product. This product is present in many commercial table salts as well as dried milk, egg mixes, sugar products, flours and spices.

You May Explode If You Consume Sodium?

A possible reason that the Medical community recommends avoiding Sodium is that you may explode. What else could it be? In the Medical community, they identify primarily with one character – Sodium. Sodium is not stable without its “funny man”. Sodium is explosive in nature, especially when exposed to water.

There’s nothing like an explosion to get your attention. Remember when your high school teacher dropped a lump of sodium into water? Bang! Lesson learnt: “sodium” is highly reactive. The human body is 50% water. Therefore, if you consume “Sodium” you may spontaneously combust? Really? All Doctors have to attend college and are required to take multiple chemistry and physics classes. They had to have high GPAs to get into Medical school. Did they forget what was taught in Chemistry class?

Chemistry teachers love to use the sodium-water reaction when they are teaching students about the periodic table. Elements are grouped according to their properties. In the far right hand column of the table are the noble gases, stable and unreactive thanks to their full complement of orbiting electrons. Sodium on the opposite side of the table has the opposite properties. Its single outer electron makes the metal highly reactive and ready to combine with others at the first opportunity – such as the moment the Sodium hits water.

Sodium’s explosion in water has long been a mystery. Thanks to high speed super-fast video footage, scientists can now understand better sodium’s energetic reaction with water.

Spikes of metal could be seen shooting very rapidly out into the water, within less than half a millisecond of the two surfaces coming into contact. And there was a flash of a bluish purple color at about the same time.” ~ By Jonathan WebbScience reporter, BBC News (article – http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-30983141

What Is Sodium?

The Sodium atom Na+is not a stable atom. The Na+ion will spontaneously attract an electron, but the Na+ atom will not spontaneously emit an electron.

Doctors may reasonably argue that they were thinking of real chemical contexts, where the cation is commonly found as part of real chemical substances (sodium drugs, sodium chloride, sodium preservatives, etc). However, the Na+atom alone would be highly unstable. Sodium can not exist alone. It must be paired with a negatively charged element to be stable.

Health Benefits of Sodium

Sodium is an extremely important electrolyte and an essential ion present in the extracellular fluid (ECF). One of the health benefits of sodium is the pivotal role it plays in enzyme operations and muscle contraction. It is very important for osmoregulation and fluid maintenance within the human body. Other health benefits include improved heart performance, nervous system, and glucose absorption.

What is the Importance of Sodium?

Sodium is needed for blood regulation and its absence can cause serious impairment of bodily functions. It is a versatile element and occurs in more than eighty different forms. As an electrolyte, it regulates the bodily fluids and transmits electrical impulses in the body. Unlike other vitamins and minerals, heat has no effect on it. Therefore, it can be used in different ways and preparations without losing its effects. Also, it is an important constituent of nerves and helps to regulate muscle contractions.

Salt Controls Bacterial Growth

Salt controls bacterial growth in fermented foods. The bacterial growth is regulated by a sodium to water ratio. Using a salt with minerals and or additive will dilute the sodium ratio. The minerals already exist in the food being fermented. This applies to those using the popular Himalayan Salt. The mineral that give the pink color to the Himalayan salt dilutes sodium concentration. Plus, certain bacteria use the minerals to outcompete other bacteria creating an imbalance in the microbiome.

The Roles Salt Plays in Fermenting

There are several reasons why salt is preferable over other things when it comes to fermenting foods. Here are a few roles that salt plays in the process:

  • Preservation—Salt inhibits the growth of undesirable bacteria and molds while allowing the growth of Lactobacilli.
  • Dehydration—Salt pulls the moisture from the food product that bacteria require for growth.
  • Promote texture—Salt hardens the pectin in vegetables, which results in a crunchy, more flavorful product.

Sodium Chloride

Chloride is the lesser-known half of a better known as part of the double-act “sodium-chloride” otherwise known as table salt. Collectively referred to as “Sodium”.

It’s not a mineral you’ll read much about in the health magazines but it is still important to your health nonetheless.

Chloride is a type of electrolyte, which works in conjunction with sodium and potassium. This particular electrolyte is found mainly in the body fluids surrounding cells. It works with the other members of the electrolyte family to help control fluids within the body and maintain electrolyte balance.

Because our bodies prefer to be pH neutral, chloride helps maintain this by reducing acid levels. Chlorides act as neutralizing agents and their work helps to bring the acid/alkaline level back into balance.

Within the stomach, you’ll find that chloride appears in the form of hydrochloric acid. In order for your body to effectively digest food, hydrochloric acid helps break the food down and stimulates the release of pancreatic enzymes and bile, so that it can be absorbed by the small intestines.

In the liver, chloride may also help in the process of removing waste.

Sources of Chloride

You’ll find chloride in many processed foods such as ketchup, French fries, canned meats, canned vegetables and olives. Chloride is plentiful in processed foods because of the high levels of preservatives needed to keep these foods fresh.

Here in the USA there’s been a lot of bad press about salt. There’s been lot of TV ad campaigns encouraging us to reduce our salt intake because most people consume too much. However our bodies do require chloride and it’s suggested we take 750 mg/day.

Chloride Deficiencies

Because of the bad press salt has many people don’t realize that salt is required by our bodies, so instead of reducing salt intake they cut it out all together.

Low blood pressure and a general feeling of weakness are two symptoms of a chloride deficiency. When chloride levels drop the body usually experiences a simultaneous loss of potassium via the urine. A condition known as alkalosis can develop if acid levels in the body drop too low. This is a dangerous condition that causes the blood pH to become elevated. When pH is elevated and the body becomes more alkaline, Red Blood Cells cannot release oxygen.

If your body is not getting enough chloride and potassium you develop hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and its symptoms cause the affected person to lose the ability to control muscle function. This in turn causes problems with breathing and swallowing, and if not addressed, may lead to death.  Learning about health is important, especially if you are wanting to build muscle quickly.

If you have suffered serious bouts of diarrhea, vomiting, excessive use of diuretics, or excessive fluid loss due to sweat then this can create a deficiency of the mineral. Many athletes take supplements of salt because drinking more water that is lost in sweat can dilute the salt within the body. Also when you exercise salt is excreted through your sweat so it’s important that it’s replaced.

Multiple Organ Dysfunction from Bad Root Canal: Case Review

A 40ish year old woman came to the office with unresolved fatigue, gastro, thyroid symptoms,  despite following a Gluten Free diet for nine years. Having done mostly GAPS/AIP/SCD eating protocols in that time frame.  She recently was food tested and determined that IgGs were positive for Casein, chocolate, coffee, corn, egg, peanut, tomato, wheat, and yeast. Limiting these foods has allowed some weight loss to begin, but other symptoms are still present.


She was being treated for the usual Social Media Memes of SIBO, Adrenal Fatigue with probiotics and  supplements made with whole food without any improvement. Analysis of the Genova 2200 Gastrointestinal Stool Profile was presented as everything was okay. She was referred to my office for a different opinion.

periodontal-diff-dx

This was the assessment after triage of the labs she brought to the office. There was a disagreement as to whether the mouth was a problem that being it was not what she was there for. She wanted to know why she felt so bad and nothing seemed to have any affect. Turns out it started in the mouth and was all down-stream from there.

Would you like to see how this case is broken down? What are the thought processes as different components of her case are broken down? Let’s get started.


Her Cycle of Dysfunction

  • Bad Root Canal contributing to Oral Infection
  • Food Sensitivities | Allergies
  • Bacteria Cleave Immunoglobulins
  • Anemia of Chronic Inflammation
  • Sulphate Reducing Bacteria
  • Short Bowel Syndrome
  • Oral Bacteria Contribute to Endometriosis
  • Unexplained Underperformance Syndrome

Hashimoto’s Autoimmune Thyroiditis

Hashimoto’s disease is an autoimmune disorder in which your immune system inappropriately attacks your thyroid gland, causing damage to your thyroid cells and upsetting the balance of chemical reactions in your body. The inflammation caused by Hashimoto’s disease, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, often leads to an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism). Hashimoto’s disease is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States.

When You Are Diagnosed With Hashimoto’s

By the time you are diagnosed with Hashimoto’s, Hypothyroidism involving just the thyroid is no longer the primary factor. Any support you give for just the thyroid will provoke further attacks. So stop it!!! Look for the other non-thyroid factors and which of the other five patterns of low thyroid  are involved. You will respond much quicker in doing this.

Along the way, however, there can be periods where the thyroid sputters back to life, even causing temporary hyperthyroidism, then a return to hypothyroidism. This cycling back and forth between hypothyroidism symptoms and hyperthyroidism is characteristic of Hashimoto’s disease as the other Non-Thyroid Factors and/or conditions that cause the five patterns of hypothyroidism and/or 22 factors of low thyroid function caused by the neuroendocrine transmitters of the NEI Supersystem  flare up and/or calm down. Again, the thyroid is NOT directly involved.

So, for example, periods of anxiety/insomnia/diarrhea/weight loss may be followed by periods of depression/fatigue/constipation/weight gain. Did I mention the 22 different factors that can cause low thyroid function that are due to neuroendocrine transmitters of the NEI Supersystem? Again, the thyroid is NOT directly involved.

Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Treatment Priorities

  1. Calm and Quite the immune system
  2. Quench inflammation in the body
  3. Reset the immune system
  4. Support the elimination of the other NON-Thyroid factors that provoke immune responses towards the thyroid. (Not mentioned by Kharrazian or Wentz)
  5. Address the Neuroendocrine transmitters imbalance that can cause 22 patterns of low thyroid function. (Kharrazian D. Why Do I Still Have Thyroid Symptoms. Chapter Ten, page 179; Not mention by Izabella Wentz)
  6. Support the underlying cause of whichever of the six patterns of low thyroid is present in the  body.  (Kharrazian D. Why Do I Still Have Thyroid Symptoms. Chapter Four, page 67; Not mention by Izabella Wentz)

The treatment of Hashimoto’s should not focus on the thyroid until the underlying factors provoking the immune attack are resolved. Any support that enhances the thyroid function will provoke aggressive attacks on the thyroid gland itself. Most of the factors involved in low thyroid function do not involve the thyroid gland.

It is like having a coworker that prevents you from doing your job and you have the job that gets all the attention and blame.

Hashimoto’s typically involves a slow but steady destruction of the gland  by the immune system and other NON-THYROID Factors that eventually results in the thyroid’s inability to produce sufficient thyroid hormone — the condition known as hypothyroidism. There are other NON-Thyroid factors that provoke immune responses towards the thyroid that take priority over supporting normal thyroid function.  There are six patterns of hypothyroidism (Low Thyroid) – five of which do not involve the thyroid that should be addressed.

Forbidden Cytokines Make Antibody Tests Confusing

Cytokine secretion by helper T cells is particularly important in autoimmunity because chronic autoimmune diseases, such as Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis are predominantly caused by Th1 cells. Th2 cells can antagonize Th1 functions and in numerous autoimmune conditions prevent autoimmune diseases from getting established.

After autoimmune conditions, such as those mentioned above, become established. Th2 is not only an inefficient suppressors of Th1, but can provoke and promote the onset of autoimmune conditions. Furthermore, neuropeptides (NPs): (somatostatin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, neuropeptide Y, and substance P), drive distinct Th1 and Th2 populations to a “forbidden” cytokine secretion: secretion of Th2 cytokines from a Th1 T cell line and vice versa. Such a phenomenon cannot be induced by classical antigenic/antibody stimulation.

Some of the NPs are produced by microbes as part of their defense strategy. Thus, focusing on restoring normal thyroid function to an autoimmune thyroid is futile.

Hypothalamic Sampling Hormones Requires Blood Flow

Sampling of hormones (including the sex hormones) by the hypothalamus requires consistent blood flow. In the body, blood carries hormones released by endocrine glands and carries them to body parts that need them.

In parasympathetic withdrawal, diagnosis is usually considered adrenal fatigue. The volume of blood shifts from the muscles and brain to the central abdominal compartment. The blood flow to the brain is not stopped when this occurs. The flow is reduced and Poiseuille’s Laws come into play.

The circulatory system provides many examples of Poiseuille’s law in action—with blood flow regulated by changes in vessel size and blood pressure. Blood vessels are not rigid but elastic. Adjustments to blood flow are primarily made by varying the size of the vessels, since the resistance is so sensitive to the radius. This is done by the Abdominal Brain through the release of NeuroEndocrine transmitters, i.e. Serotonin – sero = “blood”, tonin = “pertaining to”.

A 19% decrease in flow is caused by a 5% decrease in radius of the blood vessels. The body may compensate by increasing blood pressure by 19%, but this presents hazards to the heart and any vessel that has weakened walls.

This decrease in radius is surprisingly small for this situation. To restore the blood flow in spite of this buildup would require an increase in the pressure difference of a factor of two, with subsequent strain on the heart.

ISCHEMIC PENUMBRA OF PARASYMPATHETIC DOMINANCE

In severe and/or chronic illness, profound changes occur in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Ischemia and inflammation disrupt the porous Blood-Brain-Barrier surrounding the hypothalamus. The observed decrease in serum concentration of both hormones and neuroendocrine transmitter (neurotransmitters in the blood) are not compatible with a negative feedback loop.

Ischemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive, healthy and functioning properly). Ischemia is generally caused by problems with blood vessels, with resultant damage to or dysfunction of tissue or organs. It also means local anemia in a given part of a body sometimes resulting from congestion (such as vasoconstriction, red blood cell aggregation due to insulin resistance/diabetes). Ischemia comprises not only insufficiency of oxygen, but also reduced availability of nutrients and inadequate removal of metabolic wastes.

Hepatic Portal Hypertension

Parasympathetic Withdrawal (vasodilation) with blood pooling in the Abdominal Compartment makes the Movement Compartment and Brain/Spinal Cord Ischemic. At the periphery of the ischemic region, the so-called ischemic penumbra, neuronal damage throughout the body develops more slowly because blood flow arising from adjacent vascular territories (collateral flow) keeps blood perfusion above the threshold for immediate cell death. In the ischemic core, the major mechanism of cell death is energy failure caused by Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation (O2/GD). The hypothalamus and midbrain are most vulnerable to ischemia.

Neuron Vulnerability

Neurons in the most vulnerable areas cease to respond or show only faint responses and develop irreversible ischemic or post-ischemic damage. The hypothalamus responds to ischemic insults rigorously without having irreversible ischemic or post-ischemic damage.

The thalamus-hypothalamus interface represents a discrete boundary where neuronal vulnerability to ischemia is high in thalamus (like more rostral neocortex, striatum, hippocampus). In contrast hypothalamic neurons are comparatively resistant, generating weaker and recoverable anoxic depolarization similar to brainstem neurons, possibly the result of a Na/K pump that better functions during ischemia.

There is a well recognized but poorly understood caudal-to rostral increase in the brain`s vulnerability to neuronal injury caused by metabolic stress (insulin resistance).

Several brain regions, including the caudate, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, are vulnerable to hypoxic–ischemic brain injury. During O2/GD, hypothalamic neurons gradually depolarized during ischemic exposure. The O2/glucose deprivation (O2/GD) response induces failure of the Na+/K+ pump. The recovery is slow with chronic ischemic penumbrance

Without oxygen and glucose, neurons cannot generate the ATP needed to fuel the ionic pumps that maintain the ionic gradient across the neuronal membrane, mainly the Na+−K+ ATPase.

In the ischemic penumbra, the flow reduction is not sufficient to cause energy failure, and neurons remain viable for a prolonged period of time after the insult, but the neurons are stressed and critically vulnerable to pathogenic events that may tip their fragile metabolic balance. Excessive extracellular accumulation of glutamate is a major factor contributing to production of cytotoxic nitric oxide, free radicals and arachidonic acid metabolites. These events lead to necrosis or programmed cell death depending on the intensity of the insult and the metabolic state of the neurons. Injured and dying cells have a key role in post-ischemic inflammation because they release danger signals that activate the immune system.

Neurons that demonstrate particular vulnerability to ischemic challenges have been termed “selectively vulnerable neurons”. Of the entire forebrain, the neurons of the hippocampus are the most vulnerable.

Summary: Parasympathetic Dominance causes Ischemia to the Hippocampus, Hypothalamus, and Pituitary producing alterations in the HPA, HPT, HPD and HPG axis.

Is Your Diagnosis Being Driven By Internet Algorithms?

Is your diagnosis being driven by an Internet Algorithm bought and paid for by a Professional or Social Media Influencer? Is this Internet Algorithm catching your inescapably into a Click Funnel, conveniently linked to a sale page for a “Good-For-You” supplement. I have one question. Do you feel like you are swimming in a riptide when it come to your health?

There is a tendency at this time for Doctors and Patients alike, to jump to worst case scenarios. Especially, when the underlying factors are overlooked and ignored to create a self-fulfilling prophecy, which maintains supplement sales.

Too many believe in their diagnosis. Too many believe in their support group. There is safety in numbers. How can this many in the Support Group possibly be wrong? They are unknowingly being swept into Ad Funnels bought and paid for by Professional and Social Media Influencers.

Have you ever written something in an email or text or maybe searched for something online? Only to see your web browser inundated with advertisements for that product. Do you think that is only happening for consumer products? Professional and Social Media Influencers are paying to put their ads and websites on your electronic devices screens. The same is happening for health related topics. After they link your searches together with your friends on Social Media, they have you locked in to their funnel.

Google and Facebook algorithms are funneling Doctors and people alike into diagnosis du jours and links for purchasing supplements. Professional and Social Media Influencers are buying ad-words on Google and Facebook to sweep people into their funnels. More like whirlpools or riptides that people can’t escape from. Leaving them drowning in erroneous treatment protocols.

Google and Social Media Ad Funnels make it darn near impossible to find any information to the contrary. You will have to consciously “Red Team” (on the contrary, the opposite is true) the information you are finding. You may have to go click through ten to twelve search engine pages before finding and information that has not been “copy and pasted” from some influencers website.

Most Doctors Follow the Personality. Not the Information.

There are howles and gnashing of teeth with that quote. They follow the information published by the Profesional Influencer Personalities. They never actually checkout the information. Since the 1990s, critical thinking has not been taught. Instead, Doctors are taught the answers to their National Board tests. Essentially, puking up an answer based on what they have been told to answer. They don’t feel qualified to question the Professional Influencer. Much less tell the Empereur, they have no clothes.

Google / Social Media Algorithm Trap Snares Doctors As Well

When Doctors fall into the Google / Social Media Algorithm trap, they will go from being advocates for a supplement, recommending the supplement for all their patients; to asking their Social Media Group, what brand of supplement others use, when they are not seeing the results claimed by the Supplement Companies or Professional and Social Media Influencers. Because, obviously it isjust the brand they are using that is the problem. Never recognising that the Professional or Social Media Influencer recommending the supplement has a financial interest in the recommendation.

The Doctors never take a step back and look at the information supporting the product. I take a different attitude towards supplements. If there are consistently poor or nonexistent beneficial results. I stop recommending it. I stop wasting the patient’s resources. Even with all the pressure patients put on me. Too many patients assume I am not aware of a particular wonder supplement. When in actuality, I wonder why anyone would recommend it.

Fives Stages of Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

Hashimoto’s is a progressive autoimmune condition and the Five stage of Hashimoto’s have been identified.

Stage 1

A person has the immune system imbalance that predisposes them to development of Autoimmune conditions, one of which is Hashimoto’s. For all intents and purposes they do not have thyroid disease or an autoimmune disease. Their thyroid function is normal and there is no attack on the thyroid.

  • Women are more at risk for autoimmune conditions due the monthly fluctuations of their hormones.
  • Women with severe morning sickness have an over active Th17 immune response.

    READ MORE... Th17

  • Women with “hip pain”, “sciatica” or “loose ligaments” during the last trimester have an overactive Th17 immune response causing bone marrow edema in the hip bones causing the aforementioned painful conditions.
  • Women put on bed rest during the last trimester have an overactive Th17 immune response.
  • Women that feel better during pregnancy are using their baby’s endocrine glands to support their NEI Supersystem deficiencies. The baby is born with over-worked, underdeveloped endocrine glands that will not be able to support them during adult life.
  • Immune / inflammatory and hormone messengers cross the placenta, which the baby’s immune and endocrine system responds to. The baby is born with an overactive immune system and possible “forbidden” Cytokines are actively disrupting the child’s immune responses. These are the children born with allergic responses or incessant crying.

Stage 2

Other Non-thyroid Factors begin provoking immune responses towards the thyroid gland. Bacteria can translocate from the mouth to the thyroid. Lectin can damage TSH receptors. Damage occurs to the thyroid gland. The immune system moves into to clear the damaged tissue. Because the oral infection is never addressed and eating a diet of non-seasonal fresh fruit and vegetables is considered healthy. The Non-thyroid factors continue to damage the thyroid with the help of the immune cells. A person will have symptoms, but their TSH, T3 and T4 may be normal. But thyroid medication will be demanded and prescribed anyway. At this point the thyroid antibody test may reveal thyroid antibodies are now being produced.

Stage 3

The neuroendocrine transmitters may lose the ability to control the blood supply. The blood may be predominantly in the abdomen with very little hormone messengers making their way to the head for sampling by the Hypothalamus. This will cause altered feedback signals to the thyroid gland.

The thyroid gland loses its ability to compensate and thyroid hormone production starts to become affected. The lack of T3 and T4 making in the blood stream to the Hypothalamus for sampling will cause a mildly elevated TSH (between 2 – 10). The T3 and T4 will be normal as they are used up by the body, decreasing their available supply. This is often described as subclinical hypothyroidism. The five Non-Thyroid patterns (underconversion, overconversion, resistance, hormone binding elevation or HPT axis), 22 patterns of Neuroendocrine transmitters imbalance and the Non-Thyroid factors will never be considered or addressed. Thyroid hormones will be prescribed leading to further inability of the thyroid gland’s need to produce thyroid hormones.

Stage 4

Ignoring the Non-Thyroid Patterns while taking Thyroid Drugs

Thyroid gland failure occurs when the thyroid gland loses its ability to make thyroid hormones. The thyroid hormone drugs are recognized during hypothalamus sampling. As far as the hypothalamus which controls the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis is concerned, you have all the thyroid hormones you need and there is no need to signal the thyroid gland by producing Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH). Thus, it is expected that TSH is low while taking thyroid medications. This makes it a failure to stimulate the production of thyroid hormone problem. If you do not use it, you lose it. Your body sees no need to support unused thyroid tissue.

Too much of the thyroid gland is not maintained when the Non-Thyroid Patterns causing hypothyroidism symptoms are not addressed.

Ignoring the Non-Thyroid Factors while taking Thyroid Drugs

Thyroid gland failure occurs when too much of the thyroid gland is damaged or destroyed by the Non-Thyroid Factors and the subsequent Immune response. Too much of it has been damaged or destroyed. Supporting the “normal” function of the thyroid gland will enhance the immune response towards the thyroid gland. It is futile to cause more damage while expecting thyroid gland improvement.

Thyroid Drugs and Supplements

TSH will be low as there is no signals from the Hypothalamus for its production. T3 and T4 numbers will be ambiguous and confusing. Support will continue for the restoration of thyroid gland with confusing results.

Stage 5

You are allowed to have multiple autoimmune conditions simultaneously. It is not a matter of which came first. Most Doctors will only offer to test for autoimmune conditions based on their specialty. This leads to multiple Doctor visits, multiple diagnoses, and multiple treatment plans putting you on a slippery slope with a downward spiral.

Until the immune system is brought under control, thyroid supplements and drugs are futile. You do not worry about what color you are painting the kitchen when the house is on fire.

What is Th17?

The purpose of Th17 cells is to clear pathogens, which are not efficiently handled by TH1 and TH2 type of immunity. The induction of Th17 responses must go through three distinct steps: Induction, amplification and stabilization. The stability of Th17 population is only relevant if it is protective against a given pathogen-invader or other kind of insult. If Th17 cells loose their stability they become highly proinflammatory and promote the destruction of your body’s tissues as occurs in autoimmune conditions. In essence, your immune system chooses to sacrifice body tissues by destroying in order to preserve the rest of your body.

By promoting inflammation and attracting neutrophils, TH17-cells may help to remove microbes from the body. However, by triggering an excessive inflammatory response, TH17-cells can contribute to such inflammatory diseases as Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, Crohn’s disease, Ulcerative Colitis, Psoriasis and many other Autoimmune conditions.

TH17 cells have recently emerged as a third independent type T cells which may play an essential role in protection against certain disease causing microbes.  IL-17 plays an important and unique role protection against specific pathogens. The production of IL-17 and the recruitment of neutrophils is important in protection against gram-negative bacteria and fungal infections.Th17 are highly pro-inflammatory and that Th17 cells with specificity for self-antigens lead to severe autoimmunity.

Forbidden Cytokines and Autoimmunity

T-cells secrete various cytokines through which they affect a broad spectrum of normal and pathological immune processes. Cytokine secretion by helper T cells is particularly important in autoimmunity[i] because chronic autoimmune diseases, such as Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, Multiple Sclerosis, Type 1 Diabetes, and Rheumatoid Arthritis are predominantly caused by Th1 cells. Th2 cells can antagonize Th1 functions[ii] and in numerous autoimmune conditions prevent and/or cure autoimmune diseases.

However, recent studies found exceptions to this rule, suggesting that the behavior of a given T cell population may be unpredictable in its cytokine secretion profile. For example, (i) Th2-type T cells can be not only inefficient suppressors of autoimmune conditions induced by Th1 cells,[iii] but can cause Autoimmune conditions;[iv] thus Th1 and Th2 cells can both promote autoimmune conditions; (ii) Th0-type T cells (producing both Th1 and Th2 cytokines) can stimulate autoimmune conditions and are able to instigate Autoimmune conditions;[v] and (iii) Th2-type T cells can induce pancreatitis and diabetes in immune-compromised nonobese individuals with blood sugar problems.[vi]

The cytokine secretion of the same T cell population is different in the lymph nodes (producing both Th1 and Th2 cytokines) than in the central nervous system (CNS) environment (producing only Th1 cytokines). This observation suggests that within the CNS, specific factors (mainly IL-12 producing microglia acting as APCs, not neurons) can modulate the cytokine secretion of Tcells, can select Th1/Th2 pathway, and can control effector CD4+ T cell cytokine profile in Autoimmune conditions.[vii]

Four neuropeptides (NPs): somatostatin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, neuropeptide Y, and substance P, in the absence of any additional factors, directly induce a increased secretion of cytokines [interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon-g, IL-4, and IL-10) from T cells. Furthermore, these NPs drive distinct Th1 and Th2 populations to a ‘‘FORBIDDEN’’ cytokine secretion[viii]: secretion of Th2 cytokines from a Th1 T cell line and vice versa. Such a phenomenon cannot be induced by classical antigenic stimulation.

The nervous system, through these NPs interacting with their specific T cell-expressed receptors, can lead to the secretion of both typical and atypical cytokines, leading to the breakdown of the commitment to a distinct Th phenotype, and a potentially altered function and destiny of T cells in vivo.

Nerve fibers that release NPs are widespread in the mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems, in certain endocrine tissues, and in all the primary and secondary lymphoid organs.[ix]

[i] Merrill, J. E. & Benveniste, E. N. (1996) Trends Neurosci. 19, 331–338.

[ii] Benveniste, E. N. (1995) in Human Cytokines: Their Role in Research and Therapy (Blackwell Scientific, Oxford), pp. 195–216.

[iii] Khoruts, A., Miller, S. D. & Jenkins, M. K. (1995) J. Immunol. 155, 5011–5017.

[iv] Lafaille, J. J., Keere, F. V., Hsu, A. L., Baron, J. L., Haas, W., Raine, C. S. & Tonegawa, S. (1997) J. Exp. Med. 186, 307–312.

[v] Krakowski, M. L. & Owens, T. (1997) Eur. J. Immunol. 27, 2840–2847.

[vi] Pakala, S. V., Kurrer, M. O. & Katz, J. D. (1997) J. Exp. Med. 186, 299–306.

[vii] Krakowski, M. L. & Owens, T. (1997) Eur. J. Immunol. 27, 2840–2847.

[viii] Mia Levite. Neuropeptides, by direct interaction with T cells, induce cytokine secretion and break the commitment to a distinct T helper phenotype (T helper cells 1 and 2). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 95, pp. 12544–12549, October 1998 Immunology

[ix] Weihe, E., Nohr, D., Michel, S., Muller, S., Zentel, H. J., Fink, T. & Krekel, J. (1991) Int. J. Neurosci. 59, 1–23.

Somatostatin

Yeast/Fungi (ingested mold in this case) synthesize somatostatin using it as a defense mechanism to create their ideal environment. Normally, somatostatin is produce by the body in the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas and regions of the CNS. Classified as an inhibitory hormone, it has been shown to impede proinflammatory responses. Somatostatin secreted from non-neuronal cells along the digestive tract plays an important role as a mediator during mucosal inflammatory responses after physiological (induced by TNF-α) and pathophysiological (up-regulation of bacteria) stimulations. TH1, which predominates gastritis (gut inflammation), may be quelled through the increased levels of somatostatin. Through reduced inflammation, the yeast and other microbes are able to avoid attack by the TH1 immune system.

Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) used in probiotics, synthesizes an analogous peptide hormone precursor, pro a-factor, which is proteolytically processed by at least two separate proteases, the products of the KEXZ and STE13 genes, to generate the mature bioactive peptide somatostatin (SMS).[i],[ii],[iii],[iv],[v]

Expression in yeast of recombinant DNAs encoding hybrids between the proregion of a-factor and somatostatin results in proteolytic processing of the chimeric precursors and secretion of mature somatostatin.[vi]

[i] Green R, Schabern M, Shields D, Kramer R. Secretion of Somatostatin by Saccharomyces cereuisiae CORRECT PROCESSING OF AN a-FACTOR-SOMATOSTATIN HYBRID June 5, 1986 The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 261, 7558-7565.

[ii] Bourbonnais Y, Bolinn D, Shields D. Secretion of Somatostatin by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CORRECT PROTEOLYTIC PROCESSING OF PRO-a-FACTOR-SOMATOSTATIN HYBRIDS REQUIRES THE PRODUCTS OF THE KEX2 AND STE13 GENES’ Vol. 263, No. 30,Issue of October 25, pp. 15342-15347,1988

[iii] PRICE L, KAJKOWSKI E, HADCOCK J, OZENBERGER B, PAUSCH M. Functional Coupling of a Mammalian Somatostatin Receptor to the Yeast Pheromone Response Pathway MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY, Nov. 1995, p. 6188–6195 Vol. 15, No. 11

[iv] Keisuke Hara, Tomohiro Shigemori, Kouichi Kuroda and Mitsuyoshi Ueda. Membrane-displayed somatostatin activates somatostatin receptor subtype-2 heterologously produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hara et al. AMB Express 2012, 2:63

[v] Hara, Shigemori, Kuroda, Ueda (2012) Membrane-displayed somatostatin activates somatostatin receptor subtype-2 heterologously produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMB Express 2(1) 63

[vi]Bourbonnais Y, Bolin D, Shields D. Secrestion of Somatostating by saccharomyces cerevisiae, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 263, October 25, 1988: 15342 – 15347

Chronic Inflammation Uncouples the Adrenals

Chronic inflammation causes the Adrenals (HPA axis) to be uncoupled from the Vasomotor Autonomic System (VAS). That’s correct. Despite the fact that the adrenals are disconnected from autonomic control; many Doctors suspect and treat adrenal fatigue in any patient who has low grade or a chronic inflammation. Why? They didn’t look any deeper, questioning why are the adrenals always showing up in their analysis.

They will tell you with inflammation, it is in your best interest to improve your adrenal function to reduce inflammation. They will say the same  with about any other condition. They always recommend doing adrenal support. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis is a prominent focus of treatment in patients with chronic health conditions. Adrenal Fatigue Syndrome (AFS) is considered the root cause of the problem.

Adrenal / HPA axis Endocrine Pathway: Note the complete absence of any references to Cortisol as an Endocrine Hormone traveling through the blood after release by the adrenals.

This Endocrine hormone dilemma is caused by  the overactive immune response causing chronic inflammatory conditions and low cortisol levels  occurring relative to the level of inflammation the individual is experiencing.

Adrenal Hormones Pass Through Blood – Brain -Barrier

Adrenal hormones and neuroendocrine transmitters have important influences upon the hypothalamus, and to do so they must pass through the blood–brain barrier. The hypothalamus is bounded in part by specialized brain regions that lack an effective blood–brain barrier; the capillaries at these sites has perforations to allow free passage of hormones and even large proteins and other molecules. At these sites, the hypothalamus samples the hormone composition of the blood. Some of these sites are the sites of neurosecretion, where signals are sent from the nerve cells of the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary. The hypothalamus secretes substances known as neurohormones that start and stop the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones.

The neurons are in intimate contact with both blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF). These structures are densely vascularized, and contain receptive neurons that control hormones, regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance.

Read More - Hypothalamic Sampling Hormones Requires Blood Flow

 

Cortisol

Cortisol is a steroid hormone released into the blood stream by the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands sit on top of your kidneys. Cortisol does not get released into nerves or travel through the nerves. Inflammation damages and disturbs blood flow through out the body and the delivery of Endocrine hormones.

The  HPA axis is an adaptive response for “short-lived” inflammatory responses leading to breakdown of energy stores and energy utilization by activated immune and other cells. This becomes a disease causing factor, if it continues too long, that can drive systemic chronic inflammatory diseases such as the hypothyroid or chronic fatigue syndrome symptoms.

Which Hormone Chart is Accurate?
Technically, Both are correct. The lower is more complete. The upper chart is missing most of the hormones. Are those missing hormones important for your health? Are the missing hormones, contributing to your health condition. You may never know, unless you find a Doctor like Dr. Peterson that uses complete hormone tests.

Low DHEA

The response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to chronic inflammation is: 1) low serum levels of cortisol; 2) ambiguous lab results with respect to levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol; 3) Uncoupling of HPA axis and Vasomotor Autonomic System (VAS); 4) Symptoms ranging from no symptoms to severe cases of hypoandrogenism (low DHEA which is converting into pro-inflammatory Etiocholanolone), fatigue, and/or mineralocorticoid excess; 5) altered circadian rhythm causing morning symptoms. Low cortisol is associated with problems going to sleep and waking up. Low levels of cortisol in relation to Vasomotor neurotransmitters may be proinflammatory because cooperative anti-inflammatory coupling of the two endogenous response axes is missing.

Chronic inflammation and Adrenal Fatigue are quite closely associated: inflammation contributes to and triggers common, but very subtle, symptoms of Adrenal Fatigue such as brain fog, gastric bloating, pain of unknown origin, depression, anxiety, and reactive hypoglycemia. The real truth is that stress and Adrenal Fatigue is not a mysterious entity at all that always seems to be present.

Adrenal Fatigue consists of many nonspecific but debilitating symptoms. The onset of this condition is often slow and insidious. Sufferers are told that they are stressed and need to learn to relax more. Yes, we all know that “stress kills” to a large extent. But, the question is how?

Inflammation Uncouples the HPA axis

These difficulties in understanding “Adrenal Fatigue” and the HPA axis is caused by the fact that the Vasomotor Autonomic System (VAS) axis and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis are “UNCOUPLED”  in patients with inflammatory conditions or Hepatic Portal Hypertension (another overlooked condition) .

Cooperation between the Vasomotor Autonomic System (VAS) and the Adrenals (HPA axis) is important in chronic inflammatory diseases to efficiently down regulate inflammation in the body. Research of classical stress systems, such as the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems (SNS and PNS), is disappointing as findings are often contradicting each other, and counterintuitive, as for example, the finding of low HPA axis activity in chronically stressed and traumatized individuals. This is the basis for the meme of “Adrenal Fatigue”.

If you have chronic inflammation; the chances of Adrenal Supplements working is not good.

DHEA is converting into pro-inflammatory Etiocholanolone

Adrenal testing is popular with many Doctors. Low DHEA is often reported in the results. Complete hormone testing is rarely if ever done. When Complete Hormone testing are used. It become apparent that the low DHEA is due to its conversion into the inflammatory hormone Etiocholanolone. The hot flashes women experience may be due to Etiocholanolone surges. It is NOT a DHEA deficiency.

The reason your DHEA is low is because DHEA is converting into Pro-Inflammatory Etiocholanolone

Etiocholanolone is produced from androstenedione. It causes fever, short term hot flashes, immune stimulation and increased white blood cells. Excessive DHEA supplementation may be the cause of high etiocholanolone levels.

The Vasomotor Autonomic System (VAS) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are stimulated in parallel in response to stress factors under healthy conditions. This physiological synergism of the axes stimulated by the hormone Etiocholanolone aims at optimizing immune responses. With inflammatory diseases, one would expect that TNF or IL-6 (TH17) stimulates the hypothalamus, which activates the Vasomotor Autonomic System (VAS) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in a parallel fashion.

If lab test report shows DHEA, androstenedione and testosterone levels are low with signs and symptoms of bacterial overgrowth, high pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6 levels, etiocholanolone may be causing symptoms of inflammation, fever, leukocytosis, increased serum C-reactive protein, low iron (hypoferremia), increased IL-1 lymphocyte activation and increased white blood cell activity.

In some cases Etiocholanolone has been known to decrease cortisol in short bursts because it has a higher affinity for the parts of the adrenals (Zona Glomerulosa & Zona Reticularis) which effect mineralocorticoids, salt and water content of your blood, and Androgens (testosterone).

Increased etiocholanolone causes a rapid fall in serum iron and a rise in serum ferritin. This would be diagnosed as an iron deficiency. Read More… Anemia of Chronic Inflammation

Hydrocortisone Treatment

A critical confounder of “Adrenal Fatigue” and the HPA axis is the influence of previous glucocorticoid therapy (Hydrocortisone), which has long-lasting, but often ignored, depressive effects on the HPA axis. Hydrocortisone drugs decrease adrenal function, increase kidneys excretion of androgens (testosterone, DHEA) and increased binding of androgens to globulin making them inactive.

If you have previously used Hydrocortisone creams or Cortisone injections; the chances of Adrenal Supplements working is not good.

Uncoupling May Persist Even After Improvement

An uncoupling of the Vasomotor Autonomic System (VAS) and the HPA axis may persist even following clinically significant improvement. Suboptimal HAVS regulation of the HPA axis in patients, with chronic health conditions remains particularly prominent during periods of stress-induced activation of the two systems.

Uncoupling of these two axes is linked to prior corticosteroid therapy. Uncoupling is enhanced in prednisolone treated patients because prednisolone stimulates the SNS and inhibits the HPA axis even in healthy subjects.

How Should Doctors Treat Adrenal Fatigue?

Hypothalamic Pituitary Thyroid (HPT) Axis

Hypothalamic – Pituitary – Thyroid Axis (HPT) AKA: Hypothyroidism Secondary to Pituitary Hypofunction

Another more appropriate name for the Hypothalamic – Pituitiary – Thyroid (HPT) Axis is Hypothyroidism Secondary to Decreased Pituitary Output. This is the label used in Dr. Kharrazian’s book Why Do I Still Have Thyroid Symptoms When My Lab Tests Are Normal.

The pituitary gland is often portrayed as the “Master Gland” of the body. Such praise is justified in the sense that the anterior and posterior pituitary secrete a battery of hormones that collectively influence all cells and affect virtually all physiologic processes.

The pituitary gland may be king, but the power behind the throne is clearly the hypothalamus. Some of the neurons within the hypothalamus – neurosecretory neurons – secrete hormones that strictly control secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary. The hypothalamic hormones are referred to as releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones, reflecting their influence on anterior pituitary hormones.

T3 and T4 regulation

The production of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), released by the anterior pituitary. The thyroid and thyrotropes (cells in the anterior pituitary) form a negative feedback loop: TSH production is suppressed when the T4 levels are high, and vice versa. The TSH production itself is modulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which is produced by the hypothalamus and secreted at an increased rate in situations such as cold (in which an accelerated metabolism would generate more heat).

Thyroid Hormones Pass Through Blood – Brain -Barrier

Thyroid hormones and neuroendocrine transmitters have important influences upon the hypothalamus, and to do so they must pass through the blood–brain barrier. The hypothalamus is bounded in part by specialized brain regions that lack an effective blood–brain barrier; the capillaries at these sites has perforations to allow free passage of hormones and even large proteins and other molecules. At these sites, the hypothalamus samples the hormone composition of the blood. Some of these sites are the sites of neurosecretion, where signals are sent from the nerve cells of the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary. The hypothalamus secretes substances known as neurohormones that start and stop the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. 

The neurons are in intimate contact with both blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF). These structures are densely vascularized, and contain receptive neurons that control hormones, regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance.

The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis) is a neuroendocrine system that regulates metabolism.  When the hypothalamus senses low circulating levels of the hormones T3 and T4 in the blood, it signals to the pituitary by releasing Thyroid Releasing Hormone (TRH) into the capillaries traveling to the anterior pituitary, which secretes Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) into the veins. The veins carry the TSH to the thyroid signaling the thyroid gland to release T3 and T4.  T4 normally is converted to the more active T3, but T4 can also be converted to reverse T3 (rT3).  Reverse T3 antagonizes the T3 receptor, so high levels can be detrimental.

 

Hypothalamic Sampling Requires Blood Flow

Sampling of hormones (including the sex hormones) by the hypothalamus requires consistent blood flow. In the body, blood carries hormones released by endocrine glands and carries them to body parts that need them. 

In parasympathetic withdrawal, diagnosis is usually considered adrenal fatigue. The volume of blood shifts from the muscles and brain to the central abdominal compartment. The blood flow to the brain is not stopped when this occurs. The flow is reduced and Poiseuille’s Laws come into play. 

The circulatory system provides many examples of Poiseuille’s law in action—with blood flow regulated by changes in vessel size and blood pressure. Blood vessels are not rigid but elastic. Adjustments to blood flow are primarily made by varying the size of the vessels, since the resistance is so sensitive to the radius. This is done by the Abdominal Brain through the release of NeuroEndocrine transmitters.

A 19% decrease in flow is caused by a 5% decrease in radius of the blood vessels. The body may compensate by increasing blood pressure by 19%, but this presents hazards to the heart and any vessel that has weakened walls.

This decrease in radius is surprisingly small for this situation. To restore the blood flow in spite of this buildup would require an increase in the pressure difference of a factor of two, with subsequent strain on the heart.

ISCHEMIC PENUMBRA OF PARASYMPATHETIC DOMINANCE

In severe and/or chronic illness, profound changes occur in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Ischemia and inflammation disrupt the porous Blood-Brain-Barrier surrounding the hypothalamus. The observed decrease in serum concentration of both thyroid hormones and thyrotropin (TSH) are not compatible with a negative feedback loop.

Ischemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive, healthy and functioning properly). Ischemia is generally caused by problems with blood vessels, with resultant damage to or dysfunction of tissue or organs. It also means local anemia in a given part of a body sometimes resulting from congestion (such as vasoconstriction, red blood cell aggregation due to insulin resistance/diabetes). Ischemia comprises not only insufficiency of oxygen, but also reduced availability of nutrients and inadequate removal of metabolic wastes. 

Parasympathetic Withdrawal (vasodilation) with blood pooling in the Abdominal Compartment makes the Movement Compartment and Brain/Spinal Cord Ischemic. At the periphery of the ischemic region, the so-called ischemic penumbra, neuronal damage throughout the body develops more slowly because blood flow arising from adjacent vascular territories (collateral flow) keeps blood perfusion above the threshold for immediate cell death. In the ischemic core, the major mechanism of cell death is energy failure caused by Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation (O2/GD). The hypothalamus and midbrain are most vulnerable to ischemia.

Neurons in the most vulnerable areas cease to respond or show only faint responses and develop irreversible ischemic or post-ischemic damage. The hypothalamus responds to ischemic insults rigorously without having irreversible ischemic or post-ischemic damage.

The thalamus-hypothalamus interface represents a discrete boundary where neuronal vulnerability to ischemia is high in thalamus (like more rostral neocortex, striatum, hippocampus). In contrast hypothalamic neurons are comparatively resistant, generating weaker and recoverable anoxic depolarization similar to brainstem neurons, possibly the result of a Na/K pump that better functions during ischemia.

There is a well recognized but poorly understood caudal-to rostral increase in the brain`s vulnerability to neuronal injury caused by metabolic stress (insulin resistance).

Several brain regions, including the caudate, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, are vulnerable to hypoxic–ischemic brain injury. During O2/GD, hypothalamic neurons gradually depolarized during ischemic exposure. The O2/glucose deprivation (O2/GD) response induces failure of the Na+/K+ pump. The recovery is slow with chronic ischemic penumbrance

Without oxygen and glucose, neurons cannot generate the ATP needed to fuel the ionic pumps that maintain the ionic gradient across the neuronal membrane, mainly the Na+−K+ ATPase. 

In the ischemic penumbra, the flow reduction is not sufficient to cause energy failure, and neurons remain viable for a prolonged period of time after the insult, but the neurons are stressed and critically vulnerable to pathogenic events that may tip their fragile metabolic balance. Excessive extracellular accumulation of glutamate is a major factor contributing to production of cytotoxic nitric oxide, free radicals and arachidonic acid metabolites. These events lead to necrosis or programmed cell death depending on the intensity of the insult and the metabolic state of the neurons. Injured and dying cells have a key role in post-ischemic inflammation because they release danger signals that activate the immune system. 

Neurons that demonstrate particular vulnerability to ischemic challenges have been termed “selectively vulnerable neurons”. Of the entire forebrain, the neurons of the hippocampus are the most vulnerable.  

Summary: Parasympathetic Dominance causes Ischemia to the Hippocampus, Hypothalamus, and Pituitary producing alterations in the HPA, HPT, HPD and HPG axis.

HPT AXIS 

During illness, profound changes may occur in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. The most consistent change is a decrease in serum tri-iodothyronine (T3) level, but in severe illness, serum thyroxine (T4) may also decrease. The persistence of a normal or even decreased serum level of thyrotropin (TSH) in the face of decreased serum thyroid hormone concentrations implies there is not an adequate concentration of T3 or T4 reaching the hypothalamus for sampling. 

Since these abnormalities of thyroid hormone concentration usually occur without any evidence of thyroid disease and disappear with recovery, they have been referred to as the `sick euthyroid syndrome’ or the `euthyroid sick syndrome’.

The downregulation at all levels of the HPT axis (decreased thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and TSH at the hypothalamic-pituitary level, and a decreased production of T3 at the peripheral extra-thyroidal level) in Non-Thyroid Illness is part of the neuroendocrine adaptation to Parasympathetic Withdrawal. In this view, attempts to restore thyroid hormone levels are detrimental and should not be undertaken. 

Immune Stimulation

There is a neuroendocrine component in the pathogenesis of the decreased activity of the HPT and somatotropic axes in prolonged critical illness. T3 can stimulate dendritic cell (DC) maturation, leading to DC-induced T cell proliferation and IFN-γ release. The cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-6 can inhibit the conversion of T4 to T3, thereby shunting T4 towards the production of the potentially detrimental rT3.

Hypothalamus Receives Signals From the Nervous System

The HP Axis is considered an abbreviation for the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis.  Doing a search will yield a multitude of pages focused on the Adrenals. However, the adrenals are only one pair of endocrine glands whose hormones are sampled in the blood by the Hypothalamus. Every hormone produced by other endocrine gland in the body are also sampled by the Hypothalamus. The following description is quite common throughout healthcare.

The hypothalamus is highly involved in pituitary gland function. When it receives a signal from the nervous system, the hypothalamus secretes substances known as neurohormones that start and stop the secretion of pituitary hormones. 

This statement is usually accompanied by a graphic with arrows depicting the Hypothalamic – Pituitary Axis being described. 

Arrows are always considered to be nerves, based on the statement, “receives a signal from the nervous system.” This can be interpreted in a multitude of ways, for example; as a signal from the brain, if one is focused on the brain. If the focus is the vagus. Then the “signal” would be from the vagus. Very few would ever question those interpretations. 

However, those interpretation are very inaccurate. When in fact the arrows are blood vessels through which the hormones travel.  When questioned, some healthcare providers would profess to knowing the arrows represented blood vessels. I have one question for them. If you knew the arrows represented blood vessels through which the hormones travel. Why does your website, podcast, and social media posts, all reflect the arrows as being nerves?

Many parts of the cerebral cortex can excite or inhibit the hypothalamus. This is used to validate the meme that the arrows represent nerves. However, when considering the popular Hypothalamic – Pituitary Axis diagrams are depicting endocrine hormones that only travel through the blood. The meme that the arrows represent nerves is inaccurate.

Endocrine Glands

Your endocrine system includes eight major glands throughout your body. These glands make hormones. Hormones are chemical messengers. They travel through your bloodstream to tissues or organs. Hormones work slowly and affect body processes from head to toe. These include

      • Growth and development
      • Metabolism – digestion, elimination, breathing, blood circulation and maintaining body temperature
      • Sexual function
      • Reproduction
      • Mood

When the fact that hormones and neuroendocrine transmitters are transported through the blood are brought into the conversation. This becomes important in understanding the Hypothalamic – Pituitary – Axes. For most in healthcare, blood is always flowing, except for when there is a clot. Then there is a problem. But not until then. There is a lack of understanding of Poiseuille’s Law as it relates to blood flow in the body. This has a direct affect on hormones making it to the hypothalamus for sampling. 

Blood Flow in the Body

The task of maintaining an adequate interstitial homeostasis (the proper nutritional environment surrounding all cells in your body), (the proper hormonal, neuroendocrine transmitter, neuropeptide and immune responses), requires that blood flows almost continuously through each of the millions of capillaries in the body.

When the circulatory system is out of balance, it is like living in a house where if someone flushes the toilet or starts the washing machine while you are showering you get scalded or frozen. The water does not shut off. But the temperature and pressure change. 

The vast majority of the Healthcare community would say there is still blood flowing past the hypothalamus. So there is no problem. Everything works the same. The same could be said for standing in the shower. Why are you jumping out of the way, cursing at who ever flushed or started the washing machine.

One could ask what is the problem? The traffic (blood flow) is still moving? Yes, it is. Then traffic during rush hours does not affect deliveries either. A traffic jam is one part of the city should not affect deliveries in the remainder of the city either then. However, anyone that lives in the big cities knows that traffic jams in one area also affect deliveries in other parts of the city. Especially when Amazon or UPS shipping hubs are located areas where the jams are.

In addition to that, there is no tracking number. There is no tracking number or guaranteed delivery of hormones to the hypothalamus from the endocrine glands in the abdomen or neck. Although enhanced sympathetic tone is a well recognized component of the autonomic control of the vasomotor system, the contribution of parasympathetic withdrawal to this autonomic imbalance is relatively unknown and undescribed.

Hepatic portal hypertension increases splanchnic blood flow. This increase is caused by increased perfusion of all organs drained by the portal vein, and by increased hepatic arterial blood flow.

Does your Functional Doctor look at MRI or CT images? Do they look for vasodilation of the Hepatic Portal Vein? The answer would be only if you were diagnosed with Cirrhosis of the Liver. Just to get scenario straight. Your Functional Doctor practices “Functional” medicine for all the popular diagnosis du jours using the narrowed standards. But will wait for the diagnosis of Cirrhosis of the Liver before considering vasodilation of the Hepatic Portal Vein to be a contributor to your health condition. My Functional Chiropractic colleagues will scroll past the Hepatic Portal Vein vasodilation so they can look at the spine. Granted they are doing what they are trained to do. But why claimed they are “Functional” practitioners, if they are not going to consider the entire body.

Ironically, the Vasomotor dysfunction of the blood supply to the organs is directly correlated to vertebral disc degeneration and spinal stenosis. You would be find it nearly impossible to view a Chiropractic website, podcast or social media post that show any blood supply to the brain, vertebrae or spinal column. 

All the cells of the body must receive oxygen, glucose and nutrients from the blood as well as removal of carbon dioxide, lactic acid and cellular waste or toxins. Yes, even bone requires blood for healthy bone. Calcium does not magically appear in the bone like food does in a Harry Potter movie. All nerves depend wholly upon the arterial system for their nutrition and the quality of their function, such as sensation, signal transmission and motion, even though by the law of reciprocity they furnish force for vasomotor control to the artery itself. Nerves control the diameter of the blood and lymph vessels but they do not control what is flowing in the vessels.

No guaranteed delivery of oxygen by Red Blood Cells (RBCs). Simply jumping is a Hyperbaric Oxygen Tent does not guarantee that RBCs are going to pick up oxygen and deliver it to the brain. The same lack of guaranteed delivery occurs with hormones, neuroendocrine transmitters and neuropeptides.