Melatonin regulates a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes including hypothalamic control of circadian rhythms, regulation of ovulation in women, and immune system stimulation, and the cardiovascular system. It has also been shown to influence cell differentiation where it can either stimulate or suppress cell division depending on melatonins concentration or the type of cell exposed to increased levels of melatonin.
In light of this, melatonin has been proclaimed to be a cure-all for everything from treating insomnia and cancer to acting as an anti-aging agent.
Most women with PCOS grow many small cysts on their ovaries. That is why it is called Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Melatonin concentrations are higher in the fluid of large follicles (cysts) than in the small follicles (cysts) suggesting that increased melatonin in follicles (cysts) prior to ovulation may have an important role in ovulation processes.
Many women experience pain and increased symptoms during ovulation due to the spike in melatonin production. Often women call every month wondering what they did to cause a flair in their symptoms. The first question is: Where are you at in your cycle?
Increased melatonin levels are observed in women with PCOS, patients with dysfunctional reproductive organs, in patients of HPG Axis amenorrhea, and in anorexia nervosa.
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